Driving Study Guide

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Driving Study Guide
2013-09-30 20:57:42
Driving Study Guide

police academy driving test
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  1. what are the 4 lifestyle theories of drivin
    • Egotist- a self center, aggressive impatient, immature and demanding driver
    • the over-emotional - same as egotist (immaturity is #1), getting even attitude, commentary driving
    • rationalizer - most common, has an answer for everything, always blames the other, over confidence (this is LE)
    • Show-off - most common between 16-24 yo, risk takers (mostly male), and little concern for consequences, distorted view of vehicle's and own capabilities
  2. What is Smith's System of driving
    • Aim High in steering - focus 1-2 blocks ahead in urban areas and 1/4 mile ahead in rural
    • keep eyes moving - visually scan front and back (enhanced peripheral) prevents highway hypnosis, reduces over concentration, reduces fatigue, increases observation power
    • look at the big picture - detect front, back, and side, double check intersections, search for pedestrians (mostly kids), watch for the other driver's next move
    • leave yourself an out - see potential conflicts, establish space cushion, plan, time and execute maneuvers 
    • make sure they see you - establish eye contact with other drivers, signal at intersections and before execution of maneuvers, use lights and horn, avoid driver's blind spots, check own blind spots
  3. What are the 5 basic driving skills
    • establish a safe speed
    • negotiate intersections
    • lane position
    • execute timing
    • radio use
  4. what is the driver's triad
    • you - make sure the vehicle is in proper working condition, know your limitations 
    • vehicle - reliability and safety is ensured through proper care and maintenance, know your vehicle's limitations
    • Environment - cannot control this, must educate ourselves through knowledge of weather, roadways, traffic and lighting
  5. what is kinetic energy
    • the energy a vehicle has due to mass and velocity
    • moves in a geometric progression, not linear
    • if speed doubles KE quadruples (takes 4x the distance to stop a vehicle at 30 as it does at 15)
  6. what is Coefficient of Friction
    • max force generated by tires of a vehicle on roadway surface divided by the weight of the vehicle (% pull of gravity)
    • known as traction to most people
  7. Pre/Post Patrol Vehicle Checks
    • brakes
    • steering
    • tires
    • horn
    • exhause
    • seat belts
    • e-brake
    • fuel, 
    • trunk
    • under-hood inspections
    • lights
    • sirens
  8. what is brake fade
    • this is the result of the brakes overheating.
    • once the brakes have cooled, normal operation will resume
  9. what is the contact patch
    • the area of contact between the road and vehicle.
    • about the size of your palm per tire
    • all vehicle movement is transmitted from the vehicle to the road through this
  10. what is tire wear
    • wear bars appear when tread depth reaches 2/32
    • at this tread, a tire has no more wet weather capability that a smooth tire
    • when dealing with tires, tread is recognized by 2/32 not 1/16
  11. what are the 4 types of skids and how to recover
    • acceleration - foot off gas, allow wheels to regain rolling friction, 
    • cornering - foot off gas, decrease steering input, loot and steer in the direction you want to go.
    • braking - reduce foot pressure on brake to regain rolling friction, initiate corrective steering
    • hydroplaning - reduce speed and steering inputs (quick hand over hand, regain control, anticipate secondary skids, hydroplaning can occur at speeds as low as 30 MPH and/or 1/12 inch of water 

  12. Concepts of liability
    • Negligent actions - falure to exercise the degree of care considered reasonable under the circumstances (results in unintended injury) this includes Duty - where LE has a duty to perform in a non-negligent manner, Breach - performing in a negligent manner, and injury - injury resulting in LE misconduct.
    • Intentional Tort - wrongful act intentionally perpetrated against another resulting in injury or loss.  This includes the intentional act - intended to be committed, not justified - no legal basis exists for the act, and injury 
    • Constitutional Tort - applies to the 4th and 14th amendment. This includes the person acting under the color of law, and a deprivation of rights, privilege, or immunity.
  13. Fagan vs City of Vineland
    • establishes police liability, shocks the conscious of the court. careless, reckless, endangering, was accident foreseeable, underlying cause of pursuit or accident.
    • municipal liability - was the officer trained, is there a pursuit policy, was there supervision
  14. Jones vs Chieffo
    • Vehicles must utilize lights and sirens and travel with due regard for public safety.  
    • officers need to be aware of liability as a result of initiating or continuing high speed pursuit.
    • police terminated pursuit in Philly but still aggressively pursued subject without lights and sirens and that the suspect collided with a couple in which wife was killed and husband was injured
    • direct liability - similar to negligence, willful misconduct or in action which causes direct injury
    • vicarious liability - not the only one liable
    • municipal liability - while department held liable due to lack of training
  15. Brower vs. Inyo COunty
    • considers the use of roadblocks and their reasonableness, 
    • considered excessive force when the suspect is wanted for a minor offense
  16. what are the three types of law enforcement driving
    • non-emergency - governed by the same principles as civilian motorist, maintain full compliance with statutes
    • Emergency - must be operating as an emergency vehicle, MUST REASONABLY BELIEVE AN EMERGENCY EXISTS, High probability of death or serious bodily injury, 
    • Pursuit - attempt to apprehend a person suspected of violating a law when that person is attempting to avoid apprehension.
  17. things to consider during pursuit
    • department's policy on pursuits
    • need for immediate apprehension
    • what's the violation
    • can you safely pursue
    • traffic volume, and weather conditions
  18. Emotional factors during pursuit driving
    • siren syndrome, sense of power and urgency instead of reasoning
    • adrenaline rush (heart rate, fight/flight, performance)
    • tunnel vision - lose sight of peripherals and only focus on suspects vehicle 
    • self-control - slow down patrol car, scanning side to side and ahead, tactical breathing
  19. 4 factors of night fatalities
    • poor vision
    • fatigue
    • drugs and alcohol
    • driver error
  20. night vision recovery time is...
    • 5-7 seconds
    • loot off the fog line while keeping eye contact on approaching vehicles
  21. how many officer's death's are traffic related
  22. what is defensive driving
    the ability to operate your vehicle in such a manner as to be able to avoid involvement in a preventable crash regardless of road and weather conditions
  23. what is the best characteristic of a good law enforcement driver
  24. what is oversteer
    the front wheels turning in a tighter radius than the rear wheels
  25. what is understeer
    the vehicle travels in a straighter ling than the front wheels are turned
  26. what is the major cause of tire failure
    under inflations
  27. if tires are hot, they will read ...
    4lbs higher than normal
  28. "drive at... of your ability....
    80% leaving 20% room for error
  29. what is the apex
    the highest point of the inside of a curve or the innermost part of a turn or curve
  30. constant and increasing radius
    Outside inside outside
  31. Decreasing radius
    outside outside inside outside
  32. Cut-back, Switchback, S Curve
    outside inside inside outside
  33. what are teh 4 attributes of a good LE Officer
    • level of driving skill beyond that of non-law enforcement
    • ability to remain cool calm and collected
    • accurate perception of own abilities and performance capability of patrol vehicle
    • ability to apply driving skills to specific situations in different driving environments