Egotist- a self center, aggressive impatient, immature and demanding driver
the over-emotional - same as egotist (immaturity is #1), getting even attitude, commentary driving
rationalizer - most common, has an answer for everything, always blames the other, over confidence (this is LE)
Show-off - most common between 16-24 yo, risk takers (mostly male), and little concern for consequences, distorted view of vehicle's and own capabilities
What is Smith's System of driving
Aim High in steering - focus 1-2 blocks ahead in urban areas and 1/4 mile ahead in rural
keep eyes moving - visually scan front and back (enhanced peripheral) prevents highway hypnosis, reduces over concentration, reduces fatigue, increases observation power
look at the big picture - detect front, back, and side, double check intersections, search for pedestrians (mostly kids), watch for the other driver's next move
leave yourself an out - see potential conflicts, establish space cushion, plan, time and execute maneuvers
make sure they see you - establish eye contact with other drivers, signal at intersections and before execution of maneuvers, use lights and horn, avoid driver's blind spots, check own blind spots
Must Posses BASIC DRIVING SKILLS
What are the 5 basic driving skills
establish a safe speed
what is the driver's triad
you - make sure the vehicle is in proper working condition, know your limitations
vehicle - reliability and safety is ensured through proper care and maintenance, know your vehicle's limitations
Environment - cannot control this, must educate ourselves through knowledge of weather, roadways, traffic and lighting
what is kinetic energy
the energy a vehicle has due to mass and velocity
moves in a geometric progression, not linear
if speed doubles KE quadruples (takes 4x the distance to stop a vehicle at 30 as it does at 15)
what is Coefficient of Friction
max force generated by tires of a vehicle on roadway surface divided by the weight of the vehicle (% pull of gravity)
known as traction to most people
Pre/Post Patrol Vehicle Checks
what is brake fade
this is the result of the brakes overheating.
once the brakes have cooled, normal operation will resume
what is the contact patch
the area of contact between the road and vehicle.
about the size of your palm per tire
all vehicle movement is transmitted from the vehicle to the road through this
what is tire wear
wear bars appear when tread depth reaches 2/32
at this tread, a tire has no more wet weather capability that a smooth tire
when dealing with tires, tread is recognized by 2/32 not 1/16
what are the 4 types of skids and how to recover
acceleration - foot off gas, allow wheels to regain rolling friction,
cornering - foot off gas, decrease steering input, loot and steer in the direction you want to go.
braking - reduce foot pressure on brake to regain rolling friction, initiate corrective steering
hydroplaning - reduce speed and steering inputs (quick hand over hand, regain control, anticipate secondary skids, hydroplaning can occur at speeds as low as 30 MPH and/or 1/12 inch of water
Concepts of liability
Negligent actions - falure to exercise the degree of care considered reasonable under the circumstances (results in unintended injury) this includes Duty - where LE has a duty to perform in a non-negligent manner, Breach - performing in a negligent manner, and injury - injury resulting in LE misconduct.
Intentional Tort - wrongful act intentionally perpetrated against another resulting in injury or loss. This includes the intentional act - intended to be committed, not justified - no legal basis exists for the act, and injury
Constitutional Tort - applies to the 4th and 14th amendment. This includes the person acting under the color of law, and a deprivation of rights, privilege, or immunity.
Fagan vs City of Vineland
establishes police liability, shocks the conscious of the court. careless, reckless, endangering, was accident foreseeable, underlying cause of pursuit or accident.
municipal liability - was the officer trained, is there a pursuit policy, was there supervision
Jones vs Chieffo
Vehicles must utilize lights and sirens and travel with due regard for public safety.
officers need to be aware of liability as a result of initiating or continuing high speed pursuit.
police terminated pursuit in Philly but still aggressively pursued subject without lights and sirens and that the suspect collided with a couple in which wife was killed and husband was injured
direct liability - similar to negligence, willful misconduct or in action which causes direct injury
vicarious liability - not the only one liable
municipal liability - while department held liable due to lack of training
Brower vs. Inyo COunty
considers the use of roadblocks and their reasonableness,
considered excessive force when the suspect is wanted for a minor offense
what are the three types of law enforcement driving
non-emergency - governed by the same principles as civilian motorist, maintain full compliance with statutes
Emergency - must be operating as an emergency vehicle, MUST REASONABLY BELIEVE AN EMERGENCY EXISTS, High probability of death or serious bodily injury,
Pursuit - attempt to apprehend a person suspected of violating a law when that person is attempting to avoid apprehension.
things to consider during pursuit
department's policy on pursuits
need for immediate apprehension
what's the violation
can you safely pursue
traffic volume, and weather conditions
Emotional factors during pursuit driving
siren syndrome, sense of power and urgency instead of reasoning