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We know that behaviour is influenced by internal motivation and? But what influences internal motivation?
mechanism by which animals acquire process store and act on information from the environment
Define learning (I know there are many but this is the one that will be used)
The organization of behaviour as a result of individual experience
Describe habituation and flooding
- habituation - decline in animals responsiveness to a repeated stimulus over time
- Flooding - exposing the animal to the stimulus without possibility of escaping until the negative response or fear ceases
- Form of behavioural modification aimed at alleviation of behavioural problemscaused by innapropriate arousal
- begins by exposing to low levels of arousal and rewarding positive behaviour
What is superstious learning?
Making the mistaken association between some event or action and an unrelated consequence
Describe classical conditioning
A form of associative learning. A stimulus that normally produces a response is paired with an arbitrary stimulus until the arbitrary stimulus alone elicits the same response
What is extinction referring to in terms of classical conditioning?
The eventual disappearance of a response to a stimulus over time due to the lack of reward
Operant conditioning is?
- Another form of associative learning
- Changes in the form or frequency of behaviour that depend on the consequence they produce
What is meant by punishment?
essentially done when something is done wrong,
Describe both positive and negative punishement and reinforcement
- negative reinforcement = stop doing something aversive when it is done right
- Positive reinforcement = give something valued when something is done right
- positive punishment = do something unpleasant when animal gets it wrong
- negative punishment = take someing valued away when animal does it wrong
Does classical conditioning of a negative stimulus always have to be coupled immediately?
NOpe the proof is in the Garcia effect
What 2 things (in stookeys opinion) does punishment need to be effective?
It needs to be closely coupled with negative behaviour and has to start very strong and extreme cant slowly incrementally get worse and worse
What are 3 schedules of reinforcement commonly used? Describe each? Which of the has a stronger effect?
- Continuous - every correct response is reinforced
- Intermittent - correct response is rewarded only sometimes either at regular or irregular intervals
- Shaping - training by rewarding successively closer approximations to the goal behaviour
What is used to treat menopause in women? Where do they get it?
- Extracted conjugated estrogens from horse urine
MAKE SURE YOU READ DISCUSSIONS
Behaviour of animals depends on?
External stimuli and internal motivational state
What type of grazing patterns do we see in cattle?
Diurnal pattern, meaning grazing lots at certain times
What do animals prefer PM cut grasses or AM cut grasses? What does this illustrate?
- That while you think animals are stupid they might think the exact same of you
Lambs and other grazers pick up grazing behaviours from where?
How do bears find out what to eat?
Smelling whats in the mothers mouth
Give an example of a phobia that is hard to get over? Why?
- Because it only occurs when there is a thunder storm
Pavlovs dogs are examples of?
In terms of punishment and reinforcement negative and positive simply mean to?
- Negative - to take away
- Positive - to give
Do animals use the same social behaviour on humans as conspecifics?
No not at all
In terms of gain for 2 animals a ++ is an example of? what about a - for the recipient and + for initiator? What about vice versa? What about a --?
- Cooperative behaviour
- Spiteful behaviour
Do we see truly spiteful behaviour in animals?
Describe social facilitation? Give an example
- Increased activity stimulates others activity
- Grooming, or foosball or grazing in cattle
Give examples of social learning?
Young apes picking up sign from mothers, Birds learning where the food is hid by the humans by watching friend that goes through course first
A dominance hierarchy gives the dominant one what?
Access to resources
Do all species have linear hierarchies?
No other types are quite common
Name a few different types of hierarchies? (3)
While there are many physical differences that lend to dominance What are 3 psychological differences
- Home court advantage
- Familiars around you instead of strangers
- winning begets winning
Three types of schedules for reinforcement?
- Continuous - reinforce all desirable behaviours every single time
- Intermittant - correct response only awarded sometimes
- Shaping - training by rewarding succesfivly closer approximations to the goal behaviour
Is social behaviour limited to the animals own species?
Define social facilitation and social learning
- Facilitation = Beginning of an activity or increased activity by one individual stimulates the behaviour in another individual
- Learning = occurs when an individual learns by watching another individual perform some task and then performs better on the first try than if demonstrator has not been present
Dominance refers to?
Priority to access of resources
How can we negate dominance rank?
- By physical separation
- ie. boss sow cant stop smallers from eating if there is a barrier
Can we see cooperation between species?
- Yes definitely
- Honey bird and honey badger
Larger groups of animals show ____ aggression
Where could we learn about natural social structure in our domestic species?
Other than production data which is usually used to determine space an animal needs how else could you find this data out?
- Animals can be trained to tell us through operant conditioning
- could base requirements on the nearest neighbour analysis
When during a day would we expect a social animals personal space to diminish?
Generally in matriarchal species we like to keep the groups made up of? What happens if you do the opposite
- related individuals
- Causes agonistic behaviours
While some production systems have proven to be a bit better for welfare without loss of profuction why aren't they widely employed?
Name 2 of these alternate production ideas for pigs.
- Far too complex and expensive
- Family pen system
- Freedom farrowing system
A process of mutual familiarization between organisms that leads to social integration and a relatively stable social structure
Do all species have the same time in their lives when they are able to be socialized at peak? What does this vary with?
- Nope it varies
- Altricial (being later) vs precocial
What do we often see after the initial socialization period of a recently born animal?
A period of extreme fearfulness to the strange
Any close relationship between 2 individuals
- rapid and relatively stable learning taking place early in life
- The infantile parameters where without any reward broad supra indidivual characteristics of the species come to be recognized
- Essentially finds attraction to its own kind
Where can imprinting become a problem
With bottle raised males
Define agonistic behaviour
Combattitive, includes attack, defense and threats both aggression as well as submission
How do horses and cows size eachother up for strength?
- Horses will push butt to butt
- Bull will give eachother a side profile
Submissive behaviour does what?
Turns off aggression of aggressor
Is fighting a familiar animal the same as fighting an unfamiliar animal?
No they both hold different motivations and are therefore both very different for the animal
Do animals use the same patterns for attacking and defending?
No separate patterns that are both very complex
Describe the fighting techniques used by the following species
- pigs - slash with tusks at opponents head and neck, bites directed to shoulder neck, font legs and ears
- cattle - use horns and head to butt neck and shoulder flanks and buttocks. Defensive positioning results in head to head clashes
- sheep - butt head to head often with back up charge
- goats - butt heads, rear on hind legs and clash heads on downawards thrust
- Horses - Bite towards neck shoulders flank and legs kick with hind legs. May defend front legs from bites by kneeling
- poultry - face with raised hackles direct pecks at head and body, scratch with feet and spurs
What are 3 consequences to fighting
- Physical injury to humans
- Physical injury to animal
- Physiological effects of stress
Name 2 physiological effects fighting can have on animals
Release of ACTH (stress hormone) can exhaust animal and immune suppress the animal
Activation of sympathetic nervous system can release catecholamines which for pigs carrying a defect can be lethal or atleast cause a reduction in carcass value (PSE)
Pale soft exudative meat is lower value meat with a lower shelf life
Describe sudden death syndrome in pigs
following acute stress or PSS (porcine stress syndrome) if from a defective PSS gene which can cause immediate death, you can test for it with the halothane test
Normally during fighting what happens to glycogen? What happens if there is not enough? What happens to the pH? This results in? Which can be avoided easily in bulls by?
- USed up creating lactic acid
- pH increases
- Dark cutters
- Not mixing into new groups just prior to slaughter, bulls can be kept in groups and they will be fine, just not remixed while waiting in the slaughter line
What are a few ways researchers are tryin to quell aggression at time of mixing?
- Drugs - seems to lower initial aggression but comes back after drug wears off
- Masking odors - odors seems to elicit aggression have tried to mask it, not much success
- Pheromones - appeasement pheromones released at end of fight
- Variation in body weight - often thought that cause going to fight should have as uniform body weight as possible, but mostly the deal is that stable hierarchy formed faster and easier if lots of variation in size
What type of behaviour likely played a large part in our domestication of animals?
What is an alternate hypothesis to how we domesticated animals?
Specific breeding, but kind of complex concept for us to achieve 15,000 years ago
Describe the nearest neighbour hypothesis for deciding how much space animals need
Means essentially, you allow animals into a pen , then you look at their distribution, if they are all evenly spread apart and as far apart from eachother than they can , then probably not enough room, if they are in a clump or herd in one part of the pen then probably enough room
Describe operant conditioning experiments to find space requirements of animals
- Give the animal a massive pen, with a moving wall, allow them to settle
- Move the wall closer and closer, have the animals trained so that when pressure gets to be too much they push the button to stop the wall
This has also been used to find the optimum temperature for piglets
While older animals can be tamed can they be socialized in the sense that a puppy is?
No because they have missed the primary socialization window