Chapter 1

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Author:
casiemarie
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237997
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Chapter 1
Updated:
2013-10-01 00:45:53
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intro biopsychology
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exam 1 study guide
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  1. whats the mind body problem?
    whether the mind and body are composed of the same substance 
  2. whats the difference between dualism and monism?
    dualism: the body is materiel but the mind is nonphysical (believe the mind influences behavior through the brain)

    monism: mind and body are composed of the same substance (neuroscientists believe in physical monism)
  3. what is empiricism?
    theory of knowledge which states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience
  4. research of Galvani
    showed electrical stimulation moved muscles in a frogs leg even after it had been removed from the frogs body
  5. research of Fritsch and Hitzig
    produced movement by electrically stimulating a dogs brain
  6. hemholtz research
    measured the speed of neural conduction 
  7. localization; gage, broca
    specific areas of the brain carry out specific functions 

    -gage: rod through head from railroad accident, became irresponsible, impulsive and scially impaired 

    -broca: performed autopsy on man who had lost ability to speak after stroke, damage to ONLY area on left side of brain
  8. Equipotentiality; lashley
    the idea that the brain functions as an undifferentiated whole, extent of damage determines how much function is lost

    • -NOT localized damage
    • -rats and maze learning
  9. phrenologyl; gall
    located 35 different faculties of emotion and intellect

    -strength assessed from bumps on skull
  10. nature vs. nurture
    behavior is a product of both genetic coding and environment 

    -number of behaviors are genetically influenced

    -everything that we are and all of our knowledge is determined by our experience
  11. dominant vs. recessive genes
    dominant: will produce its effect regardless of which gene it is paired with

    recessive: will have an effect when paired with the same recessive gene on the other chromosome (color blindness)
  12. genotype
    combination of genes
  13. phenotype
    expression of genes (characteristics)
  14. polygenic
    • characteristics determined by several genes
    • -most psychological disorders
    • -height
    • -intelligence
  15. gene expression
    • - production of proteins
    • - role of environment comes into play
    • - heritability
  16. vulnerability
    the influence of genes is only partial

    -combination of genes and environmental factors determines whether the individual develops the disorder
  17. natural selection; Darwin
    • there is a great amount of variability among the members in a given species, traits that are best associated w/ reproduction and survival are more likely to be passed on  
    • evidence:
    • 1.fossils
    • 2.similarities of structures across species
    • 3. selective breeding plants/animals
  18. natural selection;fitness
    an organisms ability to pass its genes on to the next generation
  19. evo and behavior; social dominance
    • -better chance for winning fights
    • -dominant males; copulate
    • -dominant females; forage for food and produce
  20. evo and behavior; courtship display
    • -mutual responsiveness/restrictiveness for matting
    • -small groups break off
    • -cross-group population dwindles (separate species start to exist)
  21. chordates (600 MYA)
    first creatures with dorsal spine
  22. amphibians (410 MYA)
    land and water
  23. reptiles (300 MYA)
    first to lay shell covered eggs
  24. Mammals (180 MYA)
    • -mammary gland for nurturing young 
    • -spending maturation in the whom -> increased survival rate
  25. chimp
    closing relative to human, 99% shared genes
  26. early homo
    • -walking uprught
    • -brain size
    • -opposable thumbs
    • -unique properties (painting, agri, writing)
  27. spandrels
    • structure with a non-adaptive function
    • -male nipple
    • -belly button
  28. vestigial
    • structure that once served a purpose but no longer does
    • -appendix
  29. heritability
    • the percentage of the variation in a characteristic that can be attributed to genetic factors 
    • -identical twins (100% genes)
    • -fraternal twins (50% genes)

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