Music Ed Test Unit 1

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  1. Music’s many functions – Alan P. Merriam
    • 1. Emotional expression
    • 2. Aesthetic enjoyment  - use of music for deep emotional enjoyment
    • 3. Entertainment
    • 4. Communication – the conveying of
    • feelings/emotions understood by people w/in a particular culture.
    • 5. Symbolic representation – the expression of symbols exists in the texts of songs and
    • in the cultural meaning of the musical sounds. Children find certain sounds
    • more meaningful than others. Japanese frog song where ribbit sounds like a frog
    • 6. Physical response
    • 7. Enforcement of conformity to social norms (Ring around the rosy, Monkey’s jumping on the bed)
    • 8. Validation of social institutions and religious
    • rituals (Jesus loves the little children)
    • 9. Contribution to the continuity and stability of
    • culture (Beijing opera)
    • 10. Contribution to the integration of society (End of Grinch)
  2. Piaget (1969)
    • Stage and Phase Theories:
    • stage development theory,

    • children progress through 4 stages of
    • intellectual devel. Sound before symbol approach. @8 kids can perceive simple
    • melodies/timbre
    • Sensorimotor (0-2) – learning through direct
    • sensory experience

    • Preoperational (2-7) – learning through the
    • manipulation of objects, noting the consequences and internalizing them for the
    • future thus transforming stimuli to symbols

    • Concrete operations (7-11) – viewing objects in
    • concrete tangible and systematic ways but not abstractly
    • Formal operations (11+) – learning abstractly
    • using logic and deductive reasoning
  3. Jerome Bruner
    • Stage and Phase Theories:
    • modes of representation, related to maturation.
    • Spiral curiculum
    • Enactive learning through set of actions
    • Iconic learning through images and graphs
    • Symbolic learning by going beyond what is
    • immediately perceptible in the env.
  4. Lauren Sosniak
    • Stage and Phase Theories:
    • devel stages of the pianist/performer
    • Students goals and maturation over the three phases,
    • 5-10 years
    • Tinkering
    • Technical
    • Masterful music making
  5. Gregory Bateson/ Catherine Ellis (1978)
    • Stage and Phase Theories:
    • Enculturation – info absorbed w/o effort
    • Acquisition of (technical) skills/competence –
    • more engaging
    • Personal/aesthetic expression
  6. Uri Bronfenbrenner (1979)
    • Social Systems and Scapes:
    • Ecological systems that contribute to learning.
    • Microsys, exosys, mesosys (interaction b/w micro+exo sys), macrosys
    • (sociocultural context)
  7. Arjun Appadurai (1996)
    • Social Systems and Scapes:
    • global cultural flow – shaped by ethnoscape (new ppl), mediascape, technoscape, finanscapes, ideascape
  8. G. Stanley Hall
    Musical Play and Socialization Theories:

    • children train for adulthood through games.
    • Musical play -> musical understanding.
    • Ex: animal sounds song, rhythm clock game for
    • time skills/rhythm   
    • Janice tuck
  9. Lev Vygotsky
    • Musical Play and Socialization Theories:  
    • children +adult socialization = acquisition of
    • cultural knowledge
  10. David Jonassen
    • Constructivist Theory:
    • children devel their understanding through the
    • meaning they make from their experiences. Child = key player.
  11. BF Skinner, Robert Thorndike
    • Reinforcement and Social Learning Theories:
    • learning shaped through +/- reinforcement
  12. Albert Bandura
    • Reinforcement and Social Learning Theories:   
    • Social learning/imitation
  13. Richard Restak
    • Neuroscience and Music Learning:
    • Cerebral dominance, right/left brained
  14. Gordon Shaw
    • Neuroscience and Music Learning:
    • general and spatial intelligence. Neiral firing
    • patterns triggered by music lead to higher brain function (which can translate
    • to adulthood)
  15. Anders Ericsson
    Neuroscience and Music Learning:

    deliberate practice. 10,000+ hours
  16. Daniel Levitin
    • Neuroscience and Music Learning:
    • Neuromusical matrix, in music
    • performance/listening, brain regions engage in emotion, timing, perception&
    • production of sequences.
  17. Howard Gardner
    • Learning Style Theories:
    • multipel inteligences
  18. Walter Barbe,
    Raymond Swassing
    Learning Style Theories

    • learners process info
    • visually/auditory/kinesthetic
  19. Rita Dunn and Kenneth Dunn
    • Learning Style Theories:
    • variety of factors influence learning: env,
    • emotional, social, physical
  20. Harold Witkin
    Learning Style Theories:

    • field dependence(learns in env),field indep
    • (learns on own)
  21. David Ausubel
    • Instructional Theories:
    • (1968) “Theory of meaningful reception:”
    • learner = receiver, teacher =
    • lecturer/explainer.
    • existing cognitive structure = main factor in
    • potential for acquisition of new knowledge
  22. Jerome Bruner
    • Instructional Theories:
    • “discovery method” – students learn through exploration, problem solving. Age-appropriate experiences & repetition. Involves problem solving, taking risks, guessing, exploring student-initiated hypotheses.
  23. Robert Gagne
    • Instructional Theories:
    • “eight events of instruction” progresses from
    • sensory info to concept formation.
    • teacher plays role in gaining/maintaining attention,preparing learners for instruction, presenting material, prompting/guiding learning, providing conditions and feedback for a response, promoting/measuring retention, enhancing transfer of learned to new tasks/info.
  24. Edwin Gordon
    Instructional Theories:

    • “music learning theory” related to gange, starts
    • off w/ ear training, moves to technical patterns.
    • 8 types: listening to, reading, writing, creating,
    • improvising new/unfamiliar music, recalling, creating, performing familiar music.
    • Momentary retention, initiating and auditing
    • tonal patterns, establishing objective or subjective tonality and meter, consciously retaining tonal and rhythmic patterns, retaining patterns in other pieces of music, predicting patterns in music
  25. Teaching Tips:
    Classroom env
    • What should the classroom look like?
    • What should “  “ feel like?    
    • What other resources can enhance the classroom?
  26. Teaching Tips:
    A child-centered curriculum
    • Know the children
    • Begin where they are    
    • Allow time for musical play and exploration
    • Integrate music into the other parts of a
    • child’s life
  27. Teaching Tips:
    The teacher as a transmitter
    • Know the subject matter  
    • Model the musical behaviors
    • Present w/ energy & enthusiasm!
    • Instructional strategies, motivation&
    • management
  28. What are the necessities in life according to
    Pestalozzi?  Tell me about his
    environment and historical time.
    • resourcefulness,
    • obedience,
    • modesty,
    • adaptability
    • usefulness.

    • The industrial revolution in Geneva, specifically the increase in children working in factories, heavily influenced Pestalozzi and his educational philosophy.
    • Education in the late 1700s and early 1800s was strict and based on memorization; both students and teachers were expected not to deviate from the norm.
    • During a time when the ignorance of the poor to their own condition kept society in line, it is no wonder that Pestalozzi’s genuine interest in educating poor children was considered radical during his lifetime.
    • There was also little room to move up in social class, so it was assumed that children born into poor families would remain poor all of their lives. Since poor children were not expected to move up the social ladder, there was not a perceived need to educate them.
  29. Whose education is worse than the poor?
    • Pestalozzi believed that an “adaptive resourcefulness, readiness of… hand… and [a] head for any work” was more advantageous than having money.
    • He believed that “rest, pleasure, [and] abundance” did not necessarily inspire curiosity or a motivation to be educated among wealthy individuals.
    • For this reason, he suggested that the education of “people of means” was worse than that of the poor because it did not encourage the functionality, resilience, or resourcefulness that the poor learn through hard work.
  30. How has music been historically placed in the curriculum?
    • Singing schools in the late 17th/18th
    • century formalized music training, and were increasingly strengthened in the Baroque era.
    • In the 19th and 20th centuries, music curriculums emerged in elementary schools.
    • The invention of the radio in the 1920s helped globalize music listening.
    • Music teachers such as Emile Jaques-Delacroze, John Dewey, Zoltan Kodaly, Carl Orff helped stress the importance of music education for children and developed their own methods for
    • teaching.
  31. 1960s music changes
    • In the 1960s, Conferences at the Yale Seminar,
    • the Manhattanville Music Curriculum Project, and the Tanglewoood Symposium recommended a broader music repertoire for listening/performing, greater opportunities for musical expression/creativity, and a greater use of technology and media in instruction.
  32. How are stage-dependent and phase theories related?
    • Both stage and phase theories group the totality of child learning into levels that can be studied.
    • Each level represents an increase in intellect and in maturation.
    • Although stage theories are more age-specific, both stage and phase theories emphasize that learning takes course over the course of childhood rather than all at once.
  33. Good teachers are models for children to emulate
    Vygotsky, Skinner, Thorndike, Bandura, Ausubel, Gagne
  34. Children should be allowed to learn through
    their own experimentation
    Piaget, Bruner, Ellis, Hall, Jonassen, Bruner
  35. The interaction of teachers w/ children leads to
    Vygotsky, Skinner, Thorndike, Bandura, Ausubel, Gagne, Gordon
  36. Children may respond to one form of presentation
    more favorably than another
  37. Which theories govern children’s motivation to
    learn as well as the teacher’s management of their behavior?
    Especially: Gagne, Bruner, Ellis, Hall
  38. Which pedagogies stress the use of movement as an instructional technique?
    • The methods of Delcroze, Orff, and Weikert all
    • involve matching movement to music.
  39. Less than one
  40. 1-2
    melodic contour, not pitches
  41. 2
    • discrete pitches
    • babbles extended melodic phrases,
    • small intervals
  42. 3
    • Invents songs w/ discrete pitches/rhythms
    • Reproduces nursery rhymes/chants
  43. 4-5 (kindergarten)
    • Speaking voice vs. singing voice
    • Light/soft voice vs. yelling voice
    • 2 8vas, range of d-a
  44. 6-7 (1st)
    • Range: c-b
    • Begins to devel head voice and expressive control of voice
  45. 7-8 (2nd)
    Range of c-c
  46. 8-9 (3rd)
    • Range of b-e
    • Can form basic
    • harmony, vocal ostinato/sustained pitch
  47. 9-10 (4th)
    • Range of a-e, +resonance
    • Boys vocal changes @ 10
    • Can sing canons,
    • rounds, descants, countermelodies
    • Can sing guided phrasing
  48. 10-11 (5th)
    • Range of a-f, prefers songs in middle ranges @ not babyish
    • Can perform 2-part songs
  49. 11-12 (6th)
    Range of g-g. can perform 3 part songs
  50. Perfect Singing Posture
    • Feet on floor, knees bent, don’t slouch,
    • head/spine up, arms relaxed by sides. Sitting or standing
  51. Selecting a song
    • Check range
    • Check text: appropriate? Interesting? Foreign
    • lang?     
    • Style? 
    • Rhythms/tonal phrases to teach? 
    • Cultural value?
  52. How to assess a child’s range and pitch accuracy
    • Sing a familiar song in a comfortable key, then
    • in higher/lower keys   
    • Sing a descending scale in dif keys  
    • Imitate short melodies, then longer ones    
    • Have student sing song while teacher sings in in
    • a cannon
Card Set:
Music Ed Test Unit 1
2013-10-01 02:15:49
Music Ed

Music in childhood ch 1-4
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