Chemistry 2 test

Card Set Information

Chemistry 2 test
2013-10-01 00:06:06

Chemistry 2 test
Show Answers:

  1. Difference between atoms and ions
    • Atoms are a singular unit. when it has a charge it becomes an ion. 
    • an atom can be an ion, but not all ions are atoms. 
    • when an atoms outermost orbital gains or loses an electron, it becomes an ion.
  2. difference between molecules and polyatomics
    The difference between regular molecules and polyatomic ions is that polyatomic ions have a charge on the entire molecule as a whole.
  3. difference between covalent and ionic bonds
    • Covelent: results from two atoms sharing electrons usually between two non metals
    • Ionic: electrostatic attraction between charged particles after a complete transfer of electrons from one atom to another. usually between non metal and a metal.
  4. what substances occur as a diatomic molecule? (7)
    H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, and I2
  5. Ammonium
  6. NH+/4
  7. Acetate
  8. CH3CO-/2
  9. Cyanide
  10. CN-
  11. OH-
  12. Hydroxide
  13. NO-/3
  14. Nitrate
  15. Carbonate
  16. CO2-/3
  17. SO2-/4
  18. Sulfate
  19. Phosphate
  20. PH3-/4
  21. C2O2-/4
  22. oxalate
    C2 O 2-/4
  23. what elements tend to gain electrons and form _____?
    Non metals; anions
  24. What elements tend to lose electrons and form ____?
    Metals; cations
  25. what is the definition of the ground state electron configuration for atoms?
    lowest energy configuration
  26. What are the relative size trends?
    • across a period- radius increases
    • Down a column- radius gets smaller 
    • (biggest at bottom left, smallest at upper right)
  27. What are the trends for Ionization energy (Ei)?
    • across a period, Ei gets greater
    • down a column, Ei gets smaller 
    • exceptions for group 2A 
    • (greatest at noble gases, lowest at lower left)
  28. what is Ionization energy (Ei)?
    the amount of energy necessary to remove the highest energy electron from an isolated neutral atom in the gaseous state
  29. What is electron affinity (Eea)?
    • the energy that occurs when an electron is added to an atom
    • (favorable)
  30. What are the trends for electron Affinity?
    • Highest affinity at halogens (F, Cl, Br, I, At) because greatest E lost. 
    • greater going right.
  31. what does it mean when Eea=0?
    energy is required but amount is NOT known
  32. What is the octet rule?
    • lowest energy orbitals fill first
    • opposite spins
  33. Noble gas configurations. 
    Ex. Na
    Na: [Ne] 3s1
  34. Born-Haber calculations 
    Ex. NaCl
    • Na(s)--> Na(g)            +E change
    • 1/2 Cl2--> Cl(g)           +E change
    • Na(g)--> Na+(g) +e-    +E change
    • Cl(g)+e- -->Cl-(g)        -E change
    • Na+(g)+Cl-(g)-->NaClg -E change 

    overall reaction is negative, favorable.
  35. What are lattice energies? (U)
    the amount of energy required to break up an ionic solid to individual gasous atoms.
  36. trends of lattice method
    • as radii goes up, the easier it is to break the bonds of electrons
    • as charge goes up (ex. 2+, 3+) the U goes up
  37. Molecule vs. Compound
    • Molecule: a unit of matter held together by covalent bonds
    • Compound: a pure chemical substance consisting of 2 or more elements
  38. electronegativity and relation to types of bonds
    • e-negativity >1.7 ionic bonds
    • e-negativity=.4-1.7 polar covalent 
    • e-negativity <.4 nonpolar covalent bond
  39. electronegativity trends
    • across a row: electronegativity increases
    • down a column: electronegativity decreases
  40. electronegativity's relation to Ei and Eea
    • as Ei goes up, e-neg goes down 
    • as Eea goes up, e-neg goes up
  41. Prefixes
    • Mono-1
    • di-2
    • tri-3
    • tetra-4
    • penta-5
    • hexa-6
    • hepta-7
    • octa-8
  42. what is a lewis dot structure?
    a representation of an atoms valence e-, by using dots. the placement of the dots is related to the e- are located.
  43. what are resonance structures? what are the rules?
    • same connectivity, different arrangements of electrons 
    • Rules:
    • minimize formal charges to make equal. 0>1>2
    • charges on more electronegative atoms are best
    • S=C=N- is better than S-=C=N
  44. lewis structure for sulfate
  45. Lewis structure for ammonium
  46. Lewis structure for acetate
  47. lewis structure for cyanide
  48. lewis structure for hydroxide
  49. lewis structure for nitrate
  50. lewis structure for carbonate
  51. lewis structure for phosphate
  52. lewis structure for oxalate
  53. VSEPR
    valence shell electron pair repulsion
  54. VSEPR definition
    bonds are an area with a high concentration of negative charge. negative charges repel eachother and bonds want to be as far away from one another.
  55. what is the geometric and molecular shape of a molecule with a charge cloud of 2?
    • Linear for both 
  56. what is the geometric and molecular shape of a molecule with a charge cloud of 3?
    • Trigonal Planar for both 
  57. what is the geometric and molecular shape of a molecule with a charge cloud of 4 with no lone pairs?
    • Tetrahedral for both
  58. what is the geometric and molecular shape of a molecule with a charge cloud of 4 with one lone pair?
    • Tetrahedral for e-
    • trigonal pyramidal for molecular geo
  59. what is the geometric and molecular shape of a molecule with a charge cloud of 4 with two lone pairs.
    • Tetrahedral for E- geo
    • Bent for molecular geo. 
  60. Sigma and Pi bond definition
    • sigma: overlap of singular e-
    • pi: sideways bond overlap above/below Sigma bond. 

  61. Octohedral bonds are made with __ electron pairs
    • 6
  62. square pyramidal geometry is made with __ electron pairs
    • 5
  63. what molecules do not need a full octet?
    Aluminum and Boron only need 3
  64. describe the formation of sp3hybrid orbitals and identify which atoms use sp3hybridization to form bonds
    • single bonded atoms (i.e. CH4)
  65. describe the formation of sp2hybrid orbitals and identify which atoms use sp2hybridization to form bonds
    • Double bonded atoms (i.e. C2H2)
  66. describe the formation of sp hybrid orbitals and identify which atoms use sp hybridization to form bonds
    • triple bonded atoms (i.e. C2H2)