First Practicum for Skeletal Analysis comparison class
Focusing on the parts of bones, how do they grow? When does it end? How can this be used to determine age?
When the diaphysis meets the epiphysis, the metaphysis disappears. The ends of the bones (the epiphysis) fuse and longitudinal growth ceases. This occurs at different times in different bones so age can be determined by which epiphyses have fused and which ones haven't.
What is the metaphysis?
also known as epiphyseal cartilage. It's thin layers of cartilage over taken by bone formation. This is the actual site of bone-growth.
What do bones grow from?
Post cranial bones grow from cartilage, except for the clavicles.
What are osteoblasts?
bone forming cells which lay down the bone
What are ossification centers?
points which turn cartilage into bone
What is the epiphyses?
second centers of bone growth at the ends of long bones
When is bone growth complete?
When the metaphysis is gone
What is acretition?
Adding on (process of growth or increase)
What is a process?
Projection or bump that moveable joints terminate at.
What is a condyle?
Smooth and curved surface of a compact bone
What is a long bone?
cylindrical in shape and longer that it is wide
What is a flat bone?
thin in its surface
What is bone apatite?
inorganic salts rich in calcium and phosporus
What does red marrow produce? Where is it located?
Red marrow produces red blood cells, produced in the bone ends of spongy bone.
What does yellow marrow do and where is it located? How does it function?
It exchanges minerals in the body and is located in the shaft of the bone (compact bone). Long bones have port holes to get waste products out along with red blood cells
Where is lamellae located?
What is the nutrient foramena function?
Openings that grants access ports to compact bone and it provides nutrients
What is diploe?
the skull bone version of spongy bone.
What is trabeculae?
inside of bone. It responds to various pressures and stresses which bones must withstand.
Benefits of spongy bone?
saves on weight, mineral mass, and it can change shape.
What is live bone?
organ composed of living tissues capable of same functions performed by living cells.
What are the bone cells?
osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts
what is an osteocyte?
What is an osteoclast
bone cell that absorbs bone tissue
What are the organic components of bones? And how are they lost?
The components are: bone cells (osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoblasts) and osteoid.
They are lost through decomposition after death.
What is an osteoid?
organic protein matrix including bone collagen
What are the five critical function of bones?
1.) support for soft tissues
2.) anchor connective tissues and muscles and act as levers making efficient movements possible
3.) provide protection for vital organs (ex the brain, heart and lungs, and reproductive organs).
4.) function as repositories of energy forming yellow marrow fat, and also repositories for continuously exchanging minerals needed for the body
5.) certain bones at red marrow sites provide the majority of blood cell formation in the body
What do live bones contain?
blood vessels and nerves, and contain specialized cells , which some break down and others rebuild bone.
What are the two types of bone structures?
What is the structure of compact bone?
It's miscroscopic concentric columnar structures known as osteons or Haversian systems.
cylindrical and hollow containing marrow or medullary cavity which contains yellow marrow.
What are Haversian systems?
They have central Haversian canals which contain blood vessels.
Give examples of long bones
Give examples of short bones
Give examples of flat bones
bones of the skull
Give examples of irregular bones
What do articular surfaces do?
prevent or facilitate motion between the bones
What does condyles do? and what is the answers function?
Condyles form a supporting base for articular cartilage which cushions and limits friction at the site of movable joints.
What is a lamellae?
a thin layer of membrane that's in bone tissue
Explain lateral symmetry
humans and animals contain almost "mirror images"
What is superior and inferior? Example?
Superior: top, inferior: bottom. The humerus is superior to the phalanges. The phalanges are inferior to the humerus.
What is the sagittal plane?
Divides the body in half forming left and right.
What is anterior & posterior?
What are the three parts of the body?
Head, trunk, and four limbs
What are the fixed parts of the four limbs?
Where they join the trunk
What does distal and proximal mean?
Distal- away from the joining of the trunk
Proximal-towards the joining of the trunk
What is a tubercle?
A small tuberocity (protuberance on a bone especially for attachment of a muscle or ligament)
What is a feature? Example?
What is the meaning of "foramen"?
"hole" but it allows passage such as a window or door.
What is a 'meatus'?
What is the technical term for a dip?
Fossa. Can be shallow curve or deep.
What bone is this? What is it's orientation? Is it left or right?
A. Base, B. Apec, C. Facet or articulating surface.
Left picture is the anterior, right-posterior. The posterior side joins at an angle. Base superior.. apex... inferior. It's right b/c the right condylar surface is greater (another way to check is laying it down. It will lay on the right side).
Orientation? Left or Right?
C. Medial malleolus
D. Lateral malleolus
T-shape head of tibia is the proximal end. The medial malleolus is the longest part and that is medial. So it is Right. The longest of the lateral malleolus is inferior, anterior.
Femur. Right. Condyle-medial. The articulating surface-the portion that sticks out more is the anterior side.
What are the orientation of the above? What are they? And how do you tell superior from inferior?
Ribs. Top pic-left &inferior. Bottom-Right rib.
Superior and inferior portion of the rib are indicated by the ridges (inferior portion) and the "smooth"/curved portion (superior).
The top image: goes medial (left) to lateral (right). The top is superior and bottom is inferior.
the longest point on the medial side goes inward and downward.
How can you tell the orientation, which is superior and which is inferior?
The spinous process points inferiorly. Look for the u-shape.
Far left is the cervical, middle is the thoracic, and right is the lumbar.
Number of cervical, lumbar, thoracic?
Left is the anterior portion and the right image is the posterior.
The right image-the far right is the lateral portion (acromion process meets the humerus) and the left part is the medial portion.
What is an alveolus?
The socket in which a tooth embed in the upper or lower jaw.
What is edentulous? And how does it happen?
A skull without teeth
the soft tissue that hold them in place decompose so that they are no longer anchored in place
What are the gingiva?
What does the periodontal ligament do? What is its function?
Below the gingiva, it's a soft connective tissue that surrounds the tooth and joins it to the alveolar bone.
Provides cushioning for the compression caused by chewing.
What is the cementum?
Outer layer of the tooth.
Left image-anterior view
What are the three parts of a tooth?
The crown-exposed part of tooth
the neck-usually covered by the gingiva
the roots-portion of tooth attached to the alveolar bone.
What is enamel? Include its composition
outer layer of the crown
hard substance composed of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate.
What is dentin?
Next layer inward from enamel
3. the root
6. pulp cavity
10. root canal
11. alveolar bone
What is the pulp cavity? What does it contain?
Inward from the dentin is the pulp cavity. Contains blood vessels and nerves
What is the apical foramen?
The blood vessels and nerves of the pulp cavity enter the tooth from here.
What are the four types of teeth?
Incisors, canines, premolars, and molars
How many teeth does an adult have and how many of each type?
32 teeth in total
How does the dental universal number system work?
In permanent, Right upper third molar is #1, #16 is the left upper third molar. #17 is the bottom left lower third molar. #32 would be right lower third molar
What are deciduous teeth? How many are there?
What is the dental code.
If permanent teeth- capitalized. Specifies what side (left or right), type (I,M,P, or C), it's number, and if its upper or lower then it would be superscript or subscript. Teeth are counted mesial to distal (last molar is 3)
Located on medial plane
short root, chisel-like occlusal edge, narrowest on the labio-lingual axis and widest on mesio-distal axis
Upper incisors are larger than the lower with the central upper having the largest dimensions
the upper incisors have a cingulum
Upper incisors have a nearly 90 degree angle at the mesio-occlusal margin while the angle between the distal and the occlusal margins tends to be rounded
single centrally located cusp-resulting in a pointed crown
single root that is the longest
Upper canines are wider land larger than lower canines.
Upper canines have a cingulum
what is a cingulum?
bulge at the lingual base line of the crown in the neck of the tooth
What is spatulate?
The labial-longitudinal outline of the tooth is convex while the lingual-longitudinal outline is concave. Applies to canines.
two cusps. The cusps and roots (if there are two) are located on the lingual and the buccal side.
Upper:two roots (seperate or fused), the buccal and lingual cusp may almost be the same length. Mesio-distally: narrower
Lower: single root in the lower, The Buccal cusp is generally longer than the lingual cusp. Mesio-distally: rounded
First molar has the largest occlusal surface. Third molars are most likely to have fused roots.
Upper: squarer in shape. Three roots (two roots on mesial side and one on the lingual side). 3-4 cusps
Lower: longer along mesio-distal axis-oblong in shape. Two roots. 4-5 cusps forming a Y-configuration. Typical of first lower molars.
What does buccal mean?
toward the cheek cavity. Used for premolars and molars.
In regards to dentition in anatomically correct position, how are they viewed?
On the lingual side.
What is distal?
Toward the back of the mouth
What is interstitial?
The mesial and distal surfaces where two teeth abut one another. Between.
What is incisal?
biting edge or margin of the incisors and canines
What is labial?
towards the lips, used for canines and incisors.
What is lingual?
Toward the tongue.
What is mesial?
toward the front of the mouth or where the medial plane bisects the maxilla and the two halves of he mandible