Cognitive Neuroscience

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Author:
Mental86
ID:
238037
Filename:
Cognitive Neuroscience
Updated:
2013-09-30 23:47:14
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Psyc 123
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Cognitive Neuroscience
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  1. Naturally Occurring Lesions (Advantages)
    • Can strongly implicate a region as being essential for a task
    • Occur naturally
  2. Naturally Occurring Lesions (Disadvantages)
    • Still generally need double dissociation to strongly confirm selectivity of area
    • Not specific to functional areas; variable in distribution and extent
    • Does not identify a network
    • No temporal resolution
    • Relatively few subjects
    • Effects of recovery unknown or complex
  3. Directed Lesions (Advantages)
    • Can strongly implicate a region as being essential for a task
    • Can be much more selective than naturally occurring lesions
    • Can be timed (e.g., before or after training)
  4. Directed Lesions (Disadvantages)
    • Can generally only be done in animals; ethical concerns
    • Very limited temporal resolution
  5. Intracranial Stimulation (Advantages)
    Can provide rather specific neural perturbation
  6. Intracranial Stimulation (Disadvantages)
    • Mostly limited to animals and rare clinical circumstances
    • In humans, clinical concerns, limited locations that can be stimulated
  7. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) (Advantages)
    • Advantages of lesions, but transient and noninvasive (or at least nonsurgical)
    • With single-shot, can get some temporal resolution
  8. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) (Disadvantages)
    • Can mostly only do superficial cortex
    • Not very focused; stimulates other areas nearby and above target area
    • Even for some superficial brain regions; is too uncomfortable
    • Some safety issues; particularly for repetitive TMS (rTMS)
  9. Single-unit Recordings (Advantages)
    • High spatial and temporal resolution
    • Very specific (single neurons)
  10. Single-unit Recordings (Disadvantages)
    • Only picks up some neurons (typically larger ones)
    • Very invasive; almost completely limited to animals
    • Typically from only one brain area, thus does not identify a network or network interactions
  11. Electroencephalogram (EEG) (Advantages)
    • Good temporal resolution
    • Good for state effects (e.g., arousal, sleep)
    • Noninvasive
    • Inexpensive, fast, and easy recording procedures
  12. Electroencephalogram (EEG) (Disadvantages)
    • Coarse or problematic spatial resolution
    • Not very specific for information processing or cognitive function
  13. Event-related Potentials (ERPs) (Advantages)
    • Very high temporal resolution
    • Noninvasive
    • Inexpensive, fast, and easy recording procedures
  14. Event-related Potentials (ERPs) (Disadvantages)
    • Coarse or problematic spatial resolution
    • Difficult to disentangle multicomponent activity
    • Activity may associated with but not essential for the task
  15. Magnetoencephalogram (MEG) (Advantages)
    • Very high temporal resolution
    • Better localization than ERPs
    • Noninvasive
  16. Magnetoencephalogram (MEG) (Disadvantages)
    • Picks up mainly only sulcal activity
    • Limited spatial localization
    • Much more expensive than ERPs
    • Recordings very susceptible to interfering noise
    • Activity may be associated with but not essential for the task
  17. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) (Advantages)
    • Good spatial resolution (three-dimensional)
    • Identifies network of regions associated with task
  18. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) (Disadvantages)
    • No temporal resolution
    • Cannot do event-related designs (block design only)
    • Need cyclotron
    • Need to inject radioactive molecules
    • Indirect measurement or neuronal activity
    • Activated areas may be associated but not essential for the task
  19. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) (Advantages)
    • Very good spatial resolution
    • Temporal resolution much better than PET
    • Can do event-related designs
    • Identifies network of regions associated with task
    • Noninvasive
  20. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) (Disadvantages)
    • Spatial resolution still has limits (e.g., draining veins)
    • Temporal resolution still very low (seconds)
    • Indirect measurement or neuronal activity
    • Activated areas may be associated with but not essential for the task
  21. Optical Imaging (Hemodynamic) (Advantages)
    • High spatial resolution
    • Temporal resolution a bit better than fMRI
    • Can do event-related designs
    • Can image all across a cortical area simultaneously
  22. Optical Imaging (hemodynamic) (Disadvantages)
    • Almost exclusively limited to animals
    • Temporal resolution still fairly low (hundreds of ms)
    • Indirect measurement of neuronal activity
    • Activated areas may be associated with but not essential for the task
  23. Optical Imaging (Event-Related Optical Signals) (Advantages)
    • Moderate spatial resolution
    • Good temporal resolution
    • Can do event-related designs
    • Noninvasive
  24. Optical Imaging (Event-Related Optical Signals) (Disadvantages)
    • Low signal-to-noise ratio; may require multiple sessions or be able to image only limited brain regions
    • Mainly sensitive to the more superficial cortical regions
    • Activated areas may be associated with but not essential for the task

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