Chem chap 2

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babyg7207
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238040
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Chem chap 2
Updated:
2013-10-01 01:23:01
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chem chap
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Chap 2 Chem
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  1. 10^1
    1*10=10
  2. 10^2
    1*10*10=100
  3. 10^3
    1*10*10*10=1000
  4. 10^4
    1*10*10*10*10=10000
  5. 10^0
    1
  6. 10^x * 10^y=
    10^x+y
  7. 10^x/10^y
    10^x-y
  8. what is scientific notation
    standard way of expressing large as well as small number 

    • (large) greater than 1
    • (small) less than 1
  9. What is measurement?
    quantative observation - value number with a unit ex] length 225cm
  10. (Standard notation) - exponential notation
    • decimal - between 1 & 10
    • exponential part (10^x)
  11. Rules of expressing a number in scientific notation
    • - Move the decimal to get a number between 1&10
    • -When decimal is moved to left, the power is positive
    • - when decimal is moved to right, the power is negative
  12. expressing using scientific notation
    100.50
    0.0380
    5
    100.
    100
    • 1.0050 * 10^2
    • 3.80 * 10^-2
    • 5 *10^0
    • 1.00 * 10^2
    • 1 * 10^2
  13. Significant figures
    • (digits) (sf) reflects precision of a given number
    • greater the number of sf, greater is its precision
  14. 100
    100.
    100.0
    100.00
    • 1sf 
    • 3sf
    • 4sf
    • 5sf (highest precision)
  15. Rules of counting (sf) of a given number
    • -all non zero digits are significant
    • -leading zeros(zeros before a nonzero digit) are not significant ex] 0.000058 (2sf)
    • - interior zeros (zeros after a nonzero digit) are significant ex] 100,005.78 (8sf)
    • - trailing zeros (zeros after a nonzero digit) are significant, provided the number given with a decimal point
  16. 100
    100.
    100.00
    0.00100500
    100.500
    • 1sf
    • 3sf
    • 5sf
    • 6sf
    • 4sf
    • 6sf
  17. Exact number
    • number with unlimited sf.
    • numbers reported by counting discrete objects
    • ex] 30.0000 students 30 students -unlimited sf
    • numbers of a defined quantities
    • ex] 1m=100cm 1.000000m=100.0000 cm
  18. Rounding off number
    • if digit is 4 or less, it is rounded down
    • if digit is 5 or more, it is rounded up
    • proceeding digit is increased by one
  19. Rules of sf in calculations
    The answer should be least precise as possible
  20. Multiplication and Division
    The answer should be least sf as possible
  21. Rules of sf for addition and subtraction
    The answer of least decimal places as possible
  22. Measurement-Quantitative observation
    Contains a number value and a unit
  23. Units-
    • standard agreed upon quantities by which measurements are made
    • (english unit)
    • (metric unit)
    • (scientist use SI unit) follows metric system of units
  24. Prefix Multipliers-
    • Tera     T       10^12
    • Giga     G       10^9
    • Mega    M       10^6
    • Kilo      K       10^3
    • deci      d       10^-1
    • centi     c       10^-2
    • milli      m      10^-3
    • micro    (mu)  10^-6
    • nano     n       10^-9
    • pico      p       10^-12
  25. SI units (standard) of measurement
    • Length-meter m
    • volume -cubicmeter m^3
    • mass - kilogram   kg
    • temperature   kelvin  K
    • time   seconds   s
  26. length is:
    • measurement of distance between two points
    • measured using a ruler
  27. Length:
    SI unit
    Metric unit
    English unit
    • m
    • km, m, mm, nm
    • in, ft, yd, mile
  28. Volume is:
    • a measureof 3dimensional space occupied by an object
    • -is a derived measurements with units of length (raised to the power of 3)
    • -is measured using graduated cylinder
  29. Volume:
    SI unit
    Metric unit
    Eng unit
    Common unit
    laboratories
    • m^3
    • km^3, m^3, mm^3
    • teaspoon, tablespoon, fl oz, cups, pints, gallon 
    • kL, L, cL, mL, (mu)L
    • 1mL=10^-3L

    1cm^3=1mL=1cc
  30. volume=
    • L*w*h
    • 1cm*1cm*1cm
    • v=1cm^3
  31. Mass is
    • a measure  of quantity of material (matter)
    • is measured using a balance
  32. weight is
    a measure of force of gravity acting up an object
  33. Mass:
    SI unit
    metric unit
    eng unit
    • kg
    • kg, mg, g, mu g
    • oz., lb  16 oz.----- 1lb.
  34. Unit conversion
    • changing from one unit to another for particular measurement
    • using conversion factors derived from equivalents
  35. Density is:
    a measure of mass per unit volume is the ratio of mass to volume

    d=m/v
  36. How to find V=
    V= mass/ density
  37. How to find mass=
    M=d*v

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