Chapter 3

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Chapter 3
2013-10-01 15:13:36
organization funciton

exam 1 study guide
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  1. spinal cord areas
  2. Central (CNS) vs. Peripheral (PNS)
    • Central: 
    • brain and spine

    • Peripheral:
    • outside of the skull and spine
    • brings info into the CNS and carry signals out of the CNS
    • *Somatic vs. autonomic ->afferent vs. efferent ->Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic 
  3. Peripheral; Somatic vs. Autonomic
    • Somatic: 
    • Afferent (sensory)
    • Efferent (motor)

    • Autonomic:
    • Afferent (sensory)
    • Efferent (motor); Sympathetic vs. parasympathetic
  4. Afferent vs. Efferent
    Sensory nerves that travel to the CNS are Afferent

    Motor nerves that travel away from the CNS are Efferent 
  5. Peripheral, Autonomic; Sympathetic vs. parasympathetic
    • two stages of neural paths, neuron exiting the CNS synapses on a second stage neuron before the target organ
  6. Sympathetic
    • thoracic and lumbar
    • fight or flight
    • second stage neurons are far from the target organ
  7. Parasympathetic
    • cranial and sacral
    • rest and restore
    • second stage neurons are near the target organ
  8. overall divisions of nervous system
    •        CNA          
    •         ⇓
    • Brain & Spine   

    •                             PNS
    •                                 ⇓
    •            Somatic                Autonomic
    •                ⇓                           ⇓
    •    Afferent & Efferent    Afferent & Efferent
    •                                                   ⇓    
    •                                Sympathetic &                                         Parasympathetic
  9. brain meninges (3)
    • Dura Mater (tough outer membrane)
    • Arachnoid membrane (middle, web like)
    • Pia Matter (Inner, adheres to CNS surface)
    • D.A.P.
    • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF):
    • fluid serves as cushion
  10. Nuclei (singular nucleus)
    specialized cells from the reception, conduction, and transmission of electrochemical signals
  11. Glial Cell
    • support neurons
    • outnumber neurons 10:1
    • 4 classes:
    •    1. oligodendrocytes (myelin sheath in CNS)
    •    2. schwann cells (myelin sheath in PNS)
    •    3. astrocytes (largest, many functions)
    •    4. microglia (respond to injury or disease)
  12. CNS vs. PNS
    • Myelin providing glia are called
    • Oligodendrocytes in the CNS
    • Schwann cells in the PNS
    • Clusters of cell bodies are called
    • Nuclei in the CNS
    • Ganglia in the PNS

    • Bundles of axons are called
    • Tracts in the CNS
    • Nerves in the PNS
  13. directional terms (10)
    • medial vs. lateral 
    • dorsal vs. ventral 
    • anterior vs. posterior 
    • superior vs. inferior
    • proximal vs. distal
  14. medial vs. lateral
    middle, side
  15. dorsal vs. ventral
    top of head, back & bottom of head, chest
  16. anterior vs. posterior
    face & upward spine direction
  17. superior vs. inferior
    top, bottom
  18. proximal vs. distal
    close and far
  19. brain sections
    • horizontal
    • frontal
    • sagittal
    • cross
  20. brain section; horizonatal
    slice parallel to the ground
  21. brain section; frontal
    (coronal) slicing bread or salami
  22. brain section; sagittal
    midsagittal section separates the left and right halves
  23. brain section; cross
    slice through spinal cord
  24. Major divisions of the brain (3)
    • forebrain (top)
    • midbrain (middle)
    • hindbrain (bottom)
  25. forebrain
    • longututindal fissure
    • gyrus: each ridge
    • sulcus: space between two gyri
    • cortex: outer surface, cell bodies of neurons 
    • 4 lobes
    • cerebral cortex
    • thalamus and hypothalamus
    • corpus callosum
    • ventricles
  26. 4 lobes of forbrain
    • frontal
    • parietal
    • occipital
    • temporal
  27. frontal lobe
    area anterior to the central sulcus and superior to the lateral fissure

    • *brocas area; speech production
    • *perfrontal cortex; panning, organization, impulse control
  28. parietal lobe
    located superior to the lateral fissure and between the central sulcus and the occipital lobe

    • *postcentral gyrus; skin senses (touch, warmth, cold and pain) along with senses that inform us about body position and movement
    • *damage would lead to neglect the person ignores objects, people and activity on the side opposite the damage
  29. occipital lobe
    area posterior to the temporal lobe and inferior to the parietal lobe

    • *visual cortex; visual info in processed
    • *contains a map of visual space because adjacent receptors int he back of the eye send neurons to adjacent cells in the visual cortex
  30. temporal lobe
    • area inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the occipital lobe 
    • *auditory cortex; receives sound info from the ears, lies on the superior gyrus of temp. lobe
    • *wernickes area; interprets language input arriving from the nearby auditory and visual areas -> damage can cause trouble understanding speech or writing
    • *inferior temp.; major role in the visual identification of objects
  31. forebrain; cerebral cortex
    • outer most part of the forebrain
    • responsible for analyzing sensory processing and higher brain functions
  32. forebrain; thalamus and hypothalamus
    thalamus:lies just below the lateral ventricles, where it receives info from all the sensory systems (except smell) and relays it to the projection areas

    hypothalamus: smaller structure just inferior to the thalamus, plays a major role in controlling emotion and motivated behaviors such as eating/drinking/sexual activity
  33. forebrain; corpus callosum
    dense band of fibers that carry info between hemispheres 

    • *incoming info is directed to the opposite side that it comes in from and it is sent out to the opposite side that it goes out of. 
    • *left to right, right to left
  34. forebrain; ventricles
    hollow interior of the nervous system develops into cavities within the brain and central canal in the spinal cord

    *filled with cerrbrospinal fluid which carries materials from the blood vessels to the CNS and transports waste materials in the other direction
  35. midbrain
    • structure that have secondary roles in vision, audition and movement
    • mesencephalon: tectum -> superior & inferior collicili
  36. midbrain; superior & inferior collicili
    superior: help guide eye movements and fixation of gaze

    inferior: help locate the direction of sounds
  37. hindbrain
    • metencephalon (pons and cerebellum) top
    • myelencephalon (medulla) bottom
  38. hindbrain; pons
    contains centers related to sleep and arousal, which are part of the recticular formation

    *recticular formation: collection of many nuclei running through the middle of the hindbrain and midbrain
  39. hindbrain; medulla
    • lower part of hindbrain
    • its nuclei are involved with control of essential life processes, such as cardio activity and respiration (breathing)
  40. hindbrain; cerebellum
    perched on the back of the brain stem, wrinkled and divided down the middle like the cerebral hemispheres 

    • *refining movements initiated by the motor cortex by controlling their speed, intensity and direction
    • *damage: trouble making precise reaching movements, and walks with difficulty because the autonomic patterning of movement routines has been lost
  41. forebrain: limbic system
    • regulation of motivated behaviors, emotions
    • structures:
    • mammillary bodies 
    • hippocampus
    • amygdala
    • fornix 
    • cingulate (left and right)
    • septum
  42. forbrain: basal ganglia motor system
    structures that help control movement by integrating and smoothing movements using info from the primary and secondary motor areas and the somatosemsory cortex 

    • *damage contributes to parkinsons disease 
    • *structures: amygdala, stratum, globus pallidus
  43. TELENCEPHALON forebrain
    • cerebral cortex (neocotex, hippocampus)
    • major fissures (central, lateral, longitudinal)
    • major gyri (precentral, postcentral, superior temporal, cingulate)
    • four lobes (frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital)
    • limbic system  (amygdala, hippo, fornix, cingulate cortex, septum, mammllary bodies)
    • basal ganglia (amygdala, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus)
  44. DIENCEPHALON forebrain
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus (mammillary bodies)
    • optic chiasm
    • pituitary gland
  45. MESENCEPHALON midbrain
    • tectum (superior and inferior colliculis)
    • tegmentum (reticular formation)
  46. MENTENCEHALON hindbrain
    • reticular formation
    • pons
    • cerebellum
  47. MYELENCEHALON medulla
    reticular formation