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Three reasons for giving IV fluids.
- To support oxygen delivery
- Increase circulating volume
- Increase cardiac output
Plasma is what % of total body weight?
What is the average percentage used to calculate blood volume?
- Dogs & large animals: 8-9%
- Cats: 6-7%
- Average: 8%
Force of heart muscle contraction.
large molecular weight plasma proteins
Osmolarity in any fluid compartment must be _____mOms/L.
______ of IV fluids administered will stay intravascular and _______ will diffuse into the interstitial space.
True/False: Colloids pass freely through the vascular endothelium.
K, MG, protein, and phosphate are in the ________ fluid.
Na, Cl, and HCO are in the __________ fluid.
Which of the following is true about crystalloid IV fluids?
A. Water and small molecular weight solutes
B. May contain dextrose and other buffers
C. Often used in anesthetized patients
D- all are true
Crystalloid fluids are replacement solutions that are similar to _______
List some examples of crystalloid replacement fluids.
- Normosol-R (NR)
- Plasma-Lyte A and R (PA and PR)
- Isolyte S (IS)
List some examples of crystalloid maintenance fluids.
- Normosol- M in 5% dextrose (NM5)
- Plasma- Lyte 56 in 5% dextrose (PL5)
List some characteristics of crystalloid maintenance solutions in comparison with replacement solutions.
- For use over a longer time
- Contain less sodium and chloride
- Contain more potassium
- Contain lower concentrations of buffer
- Contain dextrose
What type of fluid can be used in the place of crystalloid replacement fluids?
Normal Saline (NS) (0.9% saline)
What fluids are administered with isotonic crystalloid fluids and used to treat shock?
Fluid administration rate for anesthesia
- 10mL/kg/hr first hour
- 5mL/kg/hr after
Fluid administration rate for excessive hemorrhage or hypotension
- 40mL/kg/hr dogs and large animals
- 20mL/kg/hr cats
Fluid administration rate for shock
- 90mL- dogs and large animals
- 55mL- cats
Fluid administration rate for colloids
- 5-10mL/kg/day- cats
- 10-20mL/kg/day dogs and large animals
# of drops that must fall into drip chamber of administration set to deliver 1mL of fluid. Expressed in gtt/mL
rate at which fluids should be administered expressed in gtt/unit of time. Usually gtt/min
total time over which fluids will be administered. Expressed in hours
total volume of fluids to be administered, expressed in mL or L
any drug used to induce a loss of sensation with or without unconsciousness.
Not a true anesthetic, used to produce other desired effects.
Routes of administration of anesthetics and adjuncts.
effect the body has on a drug
effect a drug has on the body
Bind and stimulates target tissue
True analgesics do not provide___________
Do not administer a drug combination if a _______ develops when the drugs are mixed.
Most anesthetic agents are __________
List purposes of pre anesthetics
- calm/ sedate animal
- minimize drug adverse effects
- reduce dose of concurrent drugs
- smoother induction and recovery
- muscle relaxation
Receptor located on postganglionic neuron at the junction with the preganglioic neuron
Receptor located on the target organ
Slowest onset, longest duration
Faster onset, shorter duration
Fastest onset, shortest duration
Anticholiergics block acetylcholine at the ________ receptor
List some purposes of anticholinergics
- Prevent and treat bradycardia
- Decrease salivary secretions
- Block miosis
- Block GI stimulation
Atropine vs Glycopyrrolate
- Atropine: faster onset, shorter peak, shorter duration
- Glycopyrrolate: slower onset longer peak, longer duration
Adverse effects of anticholinergics
- thickened respiratory and salivary secretions- cats & ruminants
- Intestinal paralysis inhibition- colic or bloat in horses and cattle
Acepromazine is in what class of drug?
Ace is approved for what species?
Horse, dog and cat
How can Ace be administered?
TRUE/FALSE: Ace has no reversal agent.
TRUE/FALSE: Ace is an analgesic.
What are effects of Ace?
- calming, reluctant to move
- peripheral vasodialation, leads to hypotension, increased HR and hypothermia
- protects against arrythmias and decreases cardiac output
- depresses respiration
- decreases allergic response