LG Animal Quiz Ch 2&3

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lacamp11
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238083
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LG Animal Quiz Ch 2&3
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2013-10-01 21:30:21
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Quiz Ch 2&3
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  1. Three reasons for giving IV fluids.
    • To support oxygen delivery
    • Increase circulating volume
    • Increase cardiac output
  2. Plasma is what % of total body weight?
    5%`
  3. What is the average percentage used to calculate blood volume?
    • Dogs & large animals: 8-9%
    • Cats: 6-7%
    • Average: 8%
  4. Inotrophy
    Force of heart muscle contraction.
  5. Colliods
    large molecular weight plasma proteins
  6. Osmolarity in any fluid compartment must be _____mOms/L.
    300
  7. ______ of IV fluids administered will stay intravascular and _______ will diffuse into the interstitial space.
    • 1/3
    • 2/3
  8. True/False: Colloids pass freely through the vascular endothelium.
    FALSE
  9. K, MG, protein, and phosphate are in the ________ fluid.
    Intracellular
  10. Na, Cl, and HCO  are in the __________ fluid.
    Extracellular
  11. Which of the following is true about crystalloid IV fluids?

    A. Water and small molecular weight solutes
    B. May contain dextrose and other buffers
    C. Often used in anesthetized patients
    D. AOTA
    D- all are true
  12. Crystalloid fluids are replacement solutions that are similar to _______
    ECF
  13. List some examples of crystalloid replacement fluids.
    • LRS
    • Normosol-R  (NR)
    • Plasma-Lyte A and R (PA and PR)
    • Isolyte S (IS)
  14. List some examples of crystalloid maintenance fluids.
    • Normosol- M in 5% dextrose (NM5)
    • Plasma- Lyte 56 in 5% dextrose (PL5)
  15. List some characteristics of crystalloid maintenance solutions in comparison with replacement solutions.
    • For use over a longer time
    • Contain less sodium and chloride
    • Contain more potassium
    • Contain lower concentrations of buffer
    • Contain dextrose
  16. What type of fluid can be used in the place of crystalloid replacement fluids?
    Normal Saline (NS) (0.9% saline)
  17. What fluids are administered with isotonic crystalloid fluids and used to treat shock?
    Hypertonic Saline
  18. Fluid administration rate for anesthesia
    • 10mL/kg/hr first hour
    • 5mL/kg/hr after
  19. Fluid administration rate for excessive hemorrhage or hypotension
    • 40mL/kg/hr dogs and large animals
    • 20mL/kg/hr cats
  20. Fluid administration rate for shock
    • 90mL- dogs and large animals
    • 55mL- cats
  21. Fluid administration rate for colloids
    • 5-10mL/kg/day- cats
    • 10-20mL/kg/day dogs and large animals
  22. Delivery rate
    # of drops that must fall into drip chamber of administration set to deliver 1mL of fluid. Expressed in gtt/mL
  23. Drip rate
    rate at which fluids should be administered expressed in gtt/unit of time. Usually gtt/min
  24. Infusion time
    total time over which fluids will be administered. Expressed in hours
  25. Infusion volume
    total volume of fluids to be administered, expressed in mL or L
  26. Anesthetic agent
    any drug used to induce a loss of sensation with or without unconsciousness.
  27. Adjunct
    Not a true anesthetic, used to produce other desired effects.
  28. Routes of administration of anesthetics and adjuncts.
    • Inhalant
    • Injectable
    • Oral
    • Topical
  29. Pharmacokinetics
    effect the body has on a drug
  30. Pharmacodynamics
    effect a drug has on the body
  31. Agonists
    Bind and stimulates target tissue
  32. True analgesics do not provide___________
    general anesthesia
  33. Do not administer a drug combination if a _______ develops when the drugs are mixed.
    Precipitate
  34. Most anesthetic agents are __________
    water soluble
  35. List purposes of pre anesthetics
    • calm/ sedate animal
    • minimize drug adverse effects
    • reduce dose of concurrent drugs
    • smoother induction and recovery
    • analgesia
    • muscle relaxation
  36. Receptor located on postganglionic neuron at the junction with the preganglioic neuron
    Nicotinic
  37. Receptor located on the target organ
    Muscarinic
  38. Slowest onset, longest duration
    SC
  39. Faster onset, shorter duration
    IM
  40. Fastest onset, shortest duration
    IV
  41. Anticholiergics block acetylcholine at the ________ receptor
    muscarinic
  42. List some purposes of anticholinergics
    • Prevent and treat bradycardia
    • Decrease salivary secretions
    • Block miosis
    • Block GI stimulation
    • Bronchodialation
  43. Atropine vs Glycopyrrolate
    • Atropine: faster onset, shorter peak, shorter duration
    • Glycopyrrolate: slower onset longer peak, longer duration
  44. Adverse effects of anticholinergics
    • arrhythmias
    • thickened respiratory and salivary secretions- cats & ruminants
    • Intestinal paralysis inhibition- colic or bloat in horses and cattle
  45. Acepromazine is in what class of drug?
    Phenothiazines
  46. Ace is approved for what species?
    Horse, dog and cat
  47. How can Ace be administered?
    IM,IV, Oral,SC
  48. TRUE/FALSE: Ace has no reversal agent.
    TRUE
  49. TRUE/FALSE: Ace is an analgesic.
    FALSE
  50. What are effects of Ace?
    • calming, reluctant to move
    • peripheral vasodialation, leads to hypotension, increased HR and hypothermia
    • protects against arrythmias and decreases cardiac output
    • depresses respiration
    • antiemetic
    • decreases allergic response

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