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theories of intellignece and binet scales; chpter 9
what was binet's definition of intelligence?
the tendency tot ake and maintain a particular direction, the capacity to make adaptations for the purpose of atttaining a desired end, and the power of autocriticism
what are the 3 research traditions that have been used to study the nature of human intelligence?
3 research traditions) psychometric
havign to do with the structure of the test
3 research traditions) information processing
how we learn to solve problems
3 research traditions) cognitive approaches
how humans adapt to real-world challenges
What factor has been found to affect scores on all standarized intellignece tests?
After French REvolution, the french govt decided that the only way to rpevent the ascendancy of another noble class was to institute...
What were binet and simon commissioned for in 1890s by the french minister? (2)
-to identify the mentally subnormal
-predict academic performance
What were the 3 revolutionary ideas that binet had about intelligence?
-intelligence develops in the same sequence in everybody but at a different rate
-development of intellectual ability can be assessed by watching children solve problems
What were little games?
Binets word that meant tasks that would assess potential for academic success efectively
What was an idiot?
severe mental retardation
what score would an idiot get out of 30
what was an imbecile?
moderate mental retardation
what score would an imbecile get out of 30?
what was a moron/
mild mental retardation
what score would a moron get out of 30?
more than 16/30
What led to the concept of metnal age?
binet searched for tasks that would differentiate childeren by age
*older children would be able to do things a younger child couldnt do
What were binets 2 major principles of intellingence test?
-general mental ability
(2 major principles of binet intellgience test) What was age differentiation?
older children simply can do intellectual manipulations that younger children cannot do
(2 major principles of binet intellgience test) What is general mental ability?
every kid had a certain level of mental ability that his test can expose
(charles spearman) what was a positive manifold?
this was based on observation that scores on diverse tests of ability are positiively correlated with scores on nearly all other tests of ability
(charles spearman) what was spearmans g or psychometric g?
there was a central, general intellectual factor
(charles spearman) What were intellectual factors?
correct problems or task solutions that tend to clsuter-to be correlated with each other more highly than with solutions of other problems
what does gf stand for?
what does gc stand for?
(charles spearman) what did he conclude about the variance in mental ability test scores?
about hald of the variance in mental ability test scaores was attributable to G factor
1905 binet-simon scale) what were these designed to do?
identify 3 levels of mental deficiency
1905 binet-simon scale) why was the test significant?
it was the first major measure of intellectual development
1905 binet-simon scale) what did it lack?
(1908 scale of binet-simon) what did it add?
an actual age scale
(1908 scale of binet-simon) what did the age scale do?
they were tasks that were grouped accoding to the age at which children were supposed to be able to solve them
(1908 scale of binet-simon) how many scores did the scale produce?
(1908 scale of binet-simon) did this one have normative data?
(1908 scale of binet-simon) what did this test use the concept of?
(1908 scale of binet-simon) mental age concept allowed them to..
compare a childs tested age level to their chronological age
termans standford-binet intelligence scale)who brought the binet-simon test to teh US and translated to english?
termans standford-binet intelligence scale) what two things did terman change?
-increased overall standardization sample
*all were white californians though
-increased the age range
*his CA was up to 14 as opposed to 12
what calculation produced IQ?
what did the IQ made possible?
to compare children of different ages in terms of their intellectual potential
termans standford-binet intelligence scale) what did terman add to his 1916 test?
Was terman racist?
yes, he thought that other races were inferior to whites
who were the "termites"?
children with very high IQ scores that participated in terman's study, genius study
1937 standford binet scale) what was the age extended down to and what was the max possible mental age?
2 years old thru 22.10 years old
1937 standford binet scale) why were more items added for?
to decrease teh tests dependence on verbal items
*was still not balanced
1937 standford binet scale) did the standardization imporved or no?
*ranged from 11 states but only white and more from urban area
1937 standford binet scale) how many forms were there and what were they called?
2 forms: L and M
1937 standford binet scale) what was the basal level or base age?
the level where the participant got all of them correct at a particular age level
1937 standford binet scale) what was ceiling age or celing level?
this was the level where the participant missed all of the items
problems with 1937 standfor-binet scale) What was wrong with reliability?
the coefficients were higher for older subjects than younger ones
problems with 1937 standfor-binet scale) what was wrong with the SD of IQ scores?
the SD of IQ scores were much different at one age than at another
1960 S-B revision)
what did they do to the SD of scores and mean?
they fixed it so teh mean was 100 and SD of scores of all ages was 16
1960 S-B revision) What did this test become?
a norm-referenced test
*comparing to the peers of the person
modern binet scale)whats on the top of hieracrchy?
*greater intellectual ability
modern binet scale) what is the g-factor divided into? (5)
-fluid analytic abilities
modern binet scale) what were the 5 categories divided into?
verbal and non-verbal types of tasks
**so it gave it 10 subsets
modern binet scale) what does each scale have to avoid wasting time by having testee do easy tasks?
age-referenced estiamte of ability
modern binet scale) what is the basal level?
level at which a minimum criterion level of items are solved correctly
modern binet scale)what is the ceiling level?
level where the testee reaches a predetermined number of incorrect answers
modern binet scale) what was the SD cahnged to and why?
15 to be comparable to wechslers
modern binet scale) How is a full-scale IQ scores determined?
the total score on all 10 subsets
modern binet scale) does each subset get its own IQ score or no?
Main differnce between weschlers and Binet test?
Binet has higher and lower endpoints
*has potential for lower and higher scores than the weschler
modern binet scale) with all the tweaks, what is the S-B considered?
best test for evaluating intellectaul processes at the extreme ends of thee IQ scale
modern binet scale) hows the reliability?