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- Started acting at age 11 to get money because Chaplin and his brother got abandoned by their parents.
- Signed with various production companies like Cartwell company, Essanay and Mutual.
- In 1916 he signed with Mutual and made more money than the president at the time.
- He gained international fame in 1917.
- At the peak of his career he acted in the Gold Rush (1925). He planned it as an epic comedy. It cost $1 million and grossed $6 million.
- This device was invented by Thomas Edison in 1894.
- It was considered the first commercial development of motion picture.
- It first showcased at the Chicago World Fair.
- Had no sound, no story, no character development and was not projected film.
- The first film was titled Fred Otts Sneeze.
Motion Picture Patents Company
- Created by Edison on 1908.
- The MPPC exploited key industry patents of motion-picture technology to fix prices, restrict the distribution and exhibition of foreign-made pictures, regulate domestic production and control film licensing and distribution.
- He was a success with Biograph where he directed his first film.
- -His contributions to cinema:
- Strong Victorian acting
- Animal instincts of villians
- He was an actor so he knew what he wanted
- Used a sequence of shots (long, medium, short)
- 180 degree rule
- No cameras over invisible line
- First to use cross cutting
- Birth of a Nation (1915) was one of his most controversial films but a commercial success.
- Originally an immigrant that use to watch Nickelodeons.
- He established his own distribution exchange, the Independent Moving Picture Company of America (IMP).
- He formed Universal Studios.
- He jump-started the Star System.
- Was a sexual celebrity.
- He played romantic and exotic characters in most of his films.
- The epitome of attractiveness and sex appeal.
- Auguste and Louis
- Created the Cinematographv in 1895
- The first film-makers to screen a program of projected motion pictures to a paying audience.
William Kennedy Laurie Dickson
- Help invent sprocket holes which enables the movement of film through the camera and the projector.
- Founded the American Mutoscope and Biograph Comapany.
- He was the first head of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA).
- MPPDA intended to regulate the industry, industry wanted to control itself.
- Hays was former head of the Republican Committee and supposed to be the watchdog of the film industry.
- He was best known for lack of control of the industry.
The Jazz Singer (film)
- Made in 1927 with the Warner Brother Studios and was the first film with sound.
- The film was shot silently and the actors lip synced.
- The Vitaphone Company had done the sound on film.
- It was $500,000 to make but grossed $2.2 million even though it was only shown in two theatres.
- Helped create MGM studios.
- In partnership with Louis Mayer they formed the strongest partnership.
- He never appeared in the credits even though he was a workaholic and worked 16 hour days.
- He loved retakes and introduced the concept of sneak previews.
- He helped revived the Marx Brothers with the film Night at the Opera.
- Production Code Administration
- Created in 1934 when Will Hays and the MPPDA was not successful.
- PCA was made to clean things up in Hollywood and improve the Public Image of the industry as a whole.
- First head of the PCA, Joseph Breen, was very successful.
- Considered the father of special effects.
- He ran Star Film Company and made for that 500 films.
- He was the jack of all trades, he directed, wrote, acted, a cameraman, etc.
- He played with stop motion and double exposure.
- The first person to make a movie with different scenes.
- Created by the Lumiere Brothers.
- It is a combination of a projector and a camera.
- On December 1895 the Lumieres first showed projected films in France.
- In comparison to Thomas Edison's Kinetoscope it was more portable and practical machine.
- Considered the first chapter of the industry.
- It was available during the years of 1902 and 1912.
- They are actual theatres but are considered hybrid, live entertainment mixed with film.
- Film length were usually 12 to 15 minutes long.
- Predominately male immigrants.
- Were not respectable and had to be 200ft away from a church.
- Made by William Kennedy Laurie Dickson in New York
- It was an access to young actors.
- Where D.W. Griffith began as a director
- Made the Mutoscope, for individual viewing, but it wasn't as successful as the kinetoscope.
- Known for his slap-stick comedy and chase scenes.
- His films were based on vaudeville.
- He had impressive cutting.
- He believed that gag had to begin and end in 100 seconds and no retakes.
- He liked the stationary camera.
- In 1915 he became a producer instead of the director.
- He influenced the movie, Monty Python.
- Was the new type of theatre and way better and cleaner than nickelodeons.
- These theatres had ushers to help serve them.
- Women began working and having disposable income to spend at movies.
- Movie palaces were a congenial environment for women.
The Mutual Case
- Mutual Film Corporation versus Industrial Commission of Ohio (1915).
- It was a case between a film production and a distribution company.
- The distribution company was routinely prohibiting the screening for profit of movies it found offensive and/or a threat to public safety and welfare.
- Court was in favor of the Industrial Commission of Ohio which allowed other states have censorship.
- Judge claims that they should treat cinema differently from the press.
- The rival of Charlie Chaplin.
- He was the sad face fool.
- His gags were connected to character.
- He made 19 shorts between 1920 and 1923.
- Founded the Technicolor Corporation
- Introducted the three strip color process
- Each strip captured different colors of the color spectrum
- First to use technicolor was Walt Disney
- It was expensive to shoot in Technicolor
- Studios couldn't use their own cameras, cameramen, and their film was developed in the Technicolor studio.