Latin History Ch1_3

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Latin History Ch1_3
2013-10-04 08:22:34
Latin History

Study cards for HCC Latin American History
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  1. "Black Legend"
    • Who: Spanish + Indigenous
    • What: Idea that Spanish Conquest was more brutal than all other conquests
    • When: Colonial
    • Where: Spanish America
    • Why: French, Spain, and Portuguese owned land in the Americas and Europeans became jealous of Spain's success in the Americas.  This was created in an attempt to change spanish conquest and limit their success in America.
  2. "Conspiracy of the Tailors"
    • Who: Enlisted men, self employed artisans (including tailors), slaves..all native born Brazilians
    • What:Rebellion for independence by the lower social classes, blacks, in Brazil. Asking for end of merchantalism and slavery.
    • When: 1798
    • Where: Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)
    • Why:  This was important because it was considered the “first Brazilian social revolution.” The capital of Brazil had been moved from Salvador to Rio de Jeneiro just before surge in the Bahia surge due to sugar exporting.  This conspiracy was a failed attempt to make Bahia an independent republic from Portugal.
  3. "I obey but do not fulfill"
    • Who: Local Spanish American viceroys, non-native leaders; Don Antoniao de Mendoza, first viceroy
    • What: Phrase used to describe attitude of local colonial officials (viceroys) toward the rule of the Spanish Crown (king).
    • When: 16th century
    • Where: Spanish America
    • Why:  Mendoza refused to enact new laws enacted by the king for fear of local rebellions.
  4. "Ninos con barbos"
    • Who: Missionaries
    • What: Concept that missionaries assumed the role of “father” to natives legally defined as “children”....”Ninos con barbas” literally means “children with beards”
    • When: colonial Mexico, 16th century
    • Where: central Mexico
    • Why:  This was an important concept, because it allows missionaries, by law, to used corporal punishment (beating/hitting) to discipline.
  5. 1805 Haitian Constitution
    • Who: Haitian people
    • What: First constitution of Haiti proper
    • When: 1805
    • Where: Haiti
    • Why:  Declared all citizens “black” to avoid racism due to lightness of skin.   Banned most whites from citizenship or owning land.  Freedom of religion. Non-hereditary empire.
  6. Aldeias
    • Who: Nomadic indeginous population
    • What: villages created by Spanish crown to concentrate nomadic natives to make a more reliable use of land to exploit work and conquor natives
    • When: early colonial
    • Where: Spanish America
    • Why: Very close to encomienda the people were dominated and overworked for the spanish and got little in return mainly saved by Catholisism and Protected by European practices and civilizations
  7. Aztec Civilization
    • Who: Mexica, indigenous population before columbian exchange
    • What: Advanced Indigenous population largly militaristic with classes dividing the population
    • When: flourished in 15th century
    • Where: Tenochtitlan, modern day mexico city
    • Why: They were canal builders the canal system provided clean water and established advanced agriculture under their empire
  8. Atlantic Slave Trade
    • Who: African American Slaves brought by Europeans to work lands in New Worlds
    • What: Over sea trading of African American Slaves to work the new world land 11,000,000 brought to new world
    • When: During Colonial period and for some the Independence period
    • Where: From Old world across the atlantic ocean to the new world
    • Why: Many of the indigenous died due to disease forced labor of Africans allowed for Income to continue to thrive to europeans out of the new world it was very brutal in latin america as 10,000,000 of the 11,000,000 went to Latin America
  9. Atlantic Islands
  10. Bartolome de las Casas
    • Who: Spanish historian
    • What: Social reformer and Dominican friar (clergyman) who chronicled the colonization of the West Indies, especial the atrocities committed by the colonists on the native, indigenous peoples
    • When: 16th century
    • Where: West Indies
    • Why: He advocated for the local indigenous people before the king of Spain.  So much so, he favored the  use of African slaves over indigenous slaves.  His efforts resulted in improvements in legal status of natives as well as increase focus on ethical colonialism.
  11. Bourbon Reforms
    • Who: Bourbons and Hapsburg
    • What: Bourbans attain Spanish throne when their was controversy over the next heir to the Hapsberg King
    • When: took over by Bourbans in 1700
    • Where: Spain
    • Why: Bourbans took over a bankrupted society and it ended up taking 3 kings to fix all the problems left behind the bourbans goal was to  reform gov't, increase gov't control of economy, and limit power of church this directly effected the Americas by having a government that cared more about their control in the new world and made and enforced a tighter law system within the Americas to benefit the Crown.  Also, Bourbans created a standing army to enforce rules and fight against any revolts that may take place while establishing their new system.
  12. Brazilian Independence
    • Who: Brazil and Portugal
    • What: Brazilian leader, Pedro (son of king Dom Joao VI) declares independence from Lisbon.
    • When: 1821-1824
    • Where: Brazil and Lisbon,Portugal
    • Why: King Dom Joao VI resided and ruled from Brazil for over a year.  Cortes (Lisbon pariliament) formed who resented remote rule of Portugal and thus the colony.  When the king returned to Portugal due to Napolean invasion, left Pedro as ruler.  Cortes restricted the prince's authority in Brazil and citizens priveleges.  Pedro convinced to declare independence in 1822; this only benefited the elite.
  13. Comunero Revolt
    • Who: Citizens of Castile
    • What: Uprising against the rule of Charles V of Spain who inherited throne after Queen Isabella I died and tax increases ordered by him.
    • When: 1520-1521
    • Where: Crown of Castile
    • Why:  Began as anti-govt revolt, but became peasant revolts over local nobility.  Eventually rebel leaders overrun by supporters of the emperor.  Considered one of the first modern anti-noble revolutions.
  14. Conquistadors
    • Who: Spanish looking for Trans-Atlantic Trade
    • What: Spanish Explorors that conquered parts of the new world
    • When: 16th Century
    • Where: Spain and Spanish America
    • Why: Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizzaro are examples of successful conquistadors they brought money to themselves and the crown through brutal conquests in the Americas.  The diseases they brought to Indigenous signifigantly helped them on their conquests of the new world.
  15. Columbian Exchange
    • Who: Indigenous people and Europeans
    • What: Exchange of people, food, man made objects, and diseases
    • When: Colonial period
    • Where: Between New and Old worlds
    • Why: The diseases transmitted to the new world lowered population of Indigenous inhabitants and ultimately made conquest possible for Spain and other European countries The potato and other agriculture from the Americas helped to feed Europe and caused a European population boom
  16. Hernando Cortez
    • Who: Spanish Conquistador
    • What: Started as a marginal nobleman but made a difference when he took over the Aztec empire making him one of the most famous and successful conquistadors
    • When: 1504
    • Where: Tenochtitlan, Modern Mexico City
    • Why: He used rival natives to help in his conquest and was a conquistador that set an image of glory and riches involved with the conquistadors and conquest of the new world.
  17. Creole Identity
    • Who: people of both European or and indigenous
    • What: Mixture of all born in the colonies usually in the Caribbean area.
    • When: 16th Century
    • Where: The Americas
    • Why:  Mixing of people led to the formation of new identities and conflicts among all three of the original cultures.  Led to the evolution of a new society.  Pride in local writers/culture.  Growing population.  Church influenced creole identity as many converted to Catholicism.  Syncretism. Creoles dominate Catholic church; however,Jesuits expulsed in 1767 due to Bourbon Reforms trying to limit local control of the church and return control to Spain.
  18. Divisions within independence movements
  19. Disease
    • Who: Indigenous
    • What: deadly diseases brought by Europeans killed many indigenous
    • When: colonial
    • Where: The Americas
    • Why: Small pox was the leading death of indigenous killed many and made conquest possible by removing the indigenouses advantage of having the numbers and killed many more by taking away workers that keep society working also weakening moral and leadership
  20. Encomienda
    • Who: Spanish, Indigenous, Moors
    • What: A brutal system giving very little and taking a lot originally used to exploit Moors but later was used towards the indigenous
    • When: early colonial era
    • Where: Latin America/ Spain
    • Why: It was used to establish a successful workforce of the indeginous/moors making money for the crown a percentage would go to the encomiendaro who was in charge of a single workforce.  This worked well in spanish america and was justified as Spain offered indigenous protection and Catholicism. Was eventually was ruled too brutal and slaves were a better option as indigenous were dieing off
  21. Enlightenment thinking/printing press
    • Who: Spanish, Indigenous, and Africans
    • What: Latin Americans didn't think of enlightenment as independence from their European powers but rather attempted work with the crown to improve rules and regulations making their living conditions better
    • When: 18th century
    • Where: Europe and Americas
    • Why: The Enlightenment Ideas were spread quickly within the Americas especially with the invention of the printing press and Ideas were based on European Enlightenment Ideas The crown liked the system they controlled indigenous with and tried to shut down all Indidenous Enlightenment
  22. Expulsion of the Jesuits
    • Who: Spanish and Creoles
    • What: Getting rid of the Jesuit churches and their power in the new worlds
    • When: early 1700s
    • Where: New world
    • Why: while the Bourban Reforms took place the new Bourban crown wanted to limit the churches power and one of the ways they did this was by getting rid of the Jesuit which is one small group of very powerful Catholics many of which were Creoles this helped to limit power of people born in new world and return it to Spain.  Limiting just this one Religious organization spain would be able to handle the backlash of revolts.
  23. Expulsions of the Jews and Muslims
    • Who: Jews and Muslims in Iberian peninsula/Granada
    • What:  Jews and Muslims expelled by Christian kings (Ferdinand and Isabella in Spain); it was a convert, leave or die strategy
    • When: from 13th to 15th century
    • Where: Iberian peninsula
    • Why: This is important because it affected the language and religion of the region.  As well as it eventually led to the Spanish Inquisition, due to fear Jews/Muslims were posing as Christians.
  24. Ferdinand and Isabella
    • Who: First Catholic monarch after Muslim Iberia surrenders to Christianity of unified Spain.
    • What: Agreed to Inquisition in Spain (Jews leave Spain, convert to Roman Catholic Christianity or be killed). Responsible for complete expulsion of  Jew and Muslims from Spain.  Also, responsible for sponsoring exploration of the New World.
    • When: late 15th, early 16th centuries
    • Where: Spain
    • Why: Exploration led to Spanish colonization in the New World with a Catholic state.
  25. Gens de couleur
    • Who: Africans in Haiti with money
    • What: Not slaves at all as they had quite a bit of money these were mixed blacks and often times slave owners
    • When: Before Haitian Revolution
    • Where: Haiti
    • Why: They did not have as much power as the Grands blancs, They were hated by the petits Blancs as they had more money but hated Petits Blacs as they had more political power and rights, Slaves hated them as They were in the bottom and owned by Gens de couleur
  26. grands blancs
    • Who: Superior White people in Haiti
    • What: They were the rich white people in Haiti highest on the food chain
    • When: Before Haitian revolution
    • Where: Haiti
    • Why: This group was the most content with Haitian gov't as they were on top in every way. They were not liked by slaves because they were their owners and took away all their rights and property, the Petits blancs didn't like them because they had more money and power over the land than them and the Gens de couleur didn't like them because they were white and had more rights and political power.  However all the whites were greatly outnumbered in Haiti
  27. Imperial crisis of 1808
    • Who: Bonaparte
    • What: Nationalist uprising against Bonaparte regime
    • When:1808
    • Where: Spain
    • Why: Junta (revolutionary governing body) met at Cortes of Cadiz to oust Bonaparte.  They ratify liberal Constitution of 1812, considered too liberal by conservative colonists...leading to independence efforts in the colonies.
  28. Jamaica Letter
    • Who: Simon Bolivar
    • What: A letter outlining Independence in the Americas and Stating why it was necessary
    • When: 1815
    • Where: The Americas
    • Why: He wanted to unite all of the new world and gain a independent gov't from spain The purpose of his letter was to gain attention and support in rebellions against Spain. he lived by it until his death
  29. Jizya
    • Who: Mohammad first to use, Muslims and other religions
    • What: A tax enforced by the muslims over other religions
    • When: 570 AD
    • Where: Muslim ruled areas of the Iberian Peninsula
    • Why: Muslims allowed other religions to practice their beliefs but required them to pay this tax in order to save their souls.  It was a way for Dominant Muslim areas to control other religions and maintain a high power within their religion.
  30. Jose de San Martin
    • Who: Argentine Freedom Fighter
    • What: A advocate and leader of freedom/independence movements within Argentina and Peru against Spain
    • When: early 1800s during independence
    • Where: Argentina
    • Why: He risked his life towards his beliefs that European rule particulary Spanish rule was over the top and the only way for better lives within the Americas was to fight for Independence against their distant leadership in Spain.  This lead him to become a hero within Peru and Argentina and the first president of Peru.  He saw and participated in some of the Independence movements in Europe
  31. Juntas
    • Who:Leaders in Spanish Provinces
    • What: When Bonaparte occupied Spain and his nephew became king, the leaders in outlying provinces or Juntas gathered to plan ousting Bonaparte
    • When: 1802
    • Where: Cortes of Cadiz, island south of Spain
    • Why: Eventually led to Bonaparte leaving Spain and new Constitution driven government, minimizing power of the king.
  32. Land distribution
  33. Louisiana Purchase
    • Who: Napolean and Thomas Jefferson
    • What: Land deal
    • When: 1803
    • Where: Currently Central portion of the United States
    • Why: Between the Haitian Revolution and the war against Britian he gave up French land to the United States
  34. Mayan Civilization
    • Who: Advanced Indigenous population
    • What: Advanced native american civilization that mysteriously ended possibly due to famine
    • When: 300-900AD
    • Where: Started in Guatemala Migrated to Yucatan
    • Why: Unlike most of the Natives they were an advanced culture with advanced forms of communication and calenders they came up with the concept of the number zero Also they were very spiritual and engaged in blood sacrifices
  35. Mestizo
    • Who: Spaniards/Spanish speaking Latin Americans
    • What: Label for any person of either mixed White European and Amerindian ancestry
    • When: Colonial period
    • Where: Colonial Latin America
    • Why:  A person's legal racial classification in colonial Spanish America was closely tied to social status, wealth, culture and language use (casta system). Wealthy people paid to change or obscure their actual ancestry. Many indigenous people left their traditional villages and sought to be counted as mestizos to avoid tribute payments to the Spanish. Many indigenous people, and sometimes those with partial African descent, were classified as mestizo if they spoke Spanish and lived as mestizos.
  36. Mercantilism
    • Who: People ruled under this new government
    • What: A government that taxes to send all money to the state rather than the people and makes cost of imports and exports too high keeping work within the country opposite of Capitalism
    • When:  late 18th century
    • Where: Americas
    • Why:  Important because it led to revolts such as the "Conspiracy of the Tailors"
  37. Mexican independence
    • Who: Creole parish priests: Hidalgo and Jose Maria Morelos.
    • What: Imperial Crisis of 1808 led to minimal oversight by the king in New Spain.  This led to unsuccessful revolts by the creoles first led by Hidalgo (an unorganized leader) and then Moreles.  The creoles just wanted power from the peninsulars.  However the mestizos and indiginous people were looking for social and economic change. 
    • When: 1802-1820
    • Where: Spain
    • Why:  Eventually, when the 1812 constitutional government was established in Spain, Mexico found the new leadership too liberal and peninsular and creole conservative forces fought to establish independence from Spain in 1820 with a creole emperor.
  38. Miguel Hidalgo
    • Who: Creole Preist
    • What: Was educated by Jesuits before expulsion and he had strong beliefs against spanish and peninsulares causing him to be a leader of revolts in mexico
    • When: 1810
    • Where: Mexico
    • Why: Unlike many of the Creoles he was well educated and informed about enlightenment he had a good understanding of how to lead a revolt against spain and run his own society after establishing his far reached changes.  Hidalgos army started small but grew a substancial amout by the time he reached and attempted to overthrow Mexico City, however Hidalgo did little to discipline or organize his troops he was captured and killed after leading this revolt.
  39. Mita
    • Who: Incan Gov't
    • What: Tax based on labor
    • When: 16th century
    • Where: Incan empire
    • Why: It forced males to work on civil projects strengthening the civilization and enforcing a strong work ethic
  40. Moors/Moorish rule
    • Who: Medieval Muslim inhabitants in parts of Europe and North Africa.
    • What: Moors take over most of western Europe including Iberia.
    • When: Medieval times; occupation began in the 700s, ending by the 15th century.
    • Where: Morocco, Algeria, Sahara, Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus), Sicily, Malta, Mauritania, and Septimania
    • Why:  This is important, because it suspended the spread of Christianity throughout Europe and the rest of the world.
  41. Mulatto
    • Who: Spaniards/Spanish speaking Latin Americans
    • What: Label for any person of either mixed White European and African Black ancestry
    • When: Colonial period
    • Where: Colonial Latin America
    • Why:  Used as a racial category in the Casta system used to identify people of a lower class to restrict their rights and penalize them with higher taxes.
  42. Muslim rule of Spain
    • Who: Muslims
    • What: Society was comprised of Muslims, Jews, and Christians.  Although there were periods of persecution, for the most part there was tolerance.  The minority population had to pay a tax, or jizya, to the majority Muslims
    • When: 711 to 1492
    • Where: Al-Andalus or Moorish Iberia or Islamic Iberia
    • Why: Generally more tolerant society.  Religious culture less focused on conversion and missionary work than other religions.
  43. Napoleon
    • Who: French ruler
    • What: Took power after French revolution Naming himself Emperor of France
    • When: 1799
    • Where: France
    • Why: He Blockaded Spain ruining their economy and causing Spain to go from a increadably rich and strong country to a weak and bankrupt country.  Also treaties forced Spain to fight along side of the French during Napolianic Wars furthering their massive debt. Eventually Napoleon takes over much of the penninsula including Spain and Portugal and Starts venturing toward the New World.  This leads to Independence movements in Spanish America.
  44. Palenque
    • Who: Mayans
    • What: Maya city state.
    • When: 5th to 7th Century
    • Where: Southern Mexico
    • Why:  Indicates the richness and creative genius of the Mayan culture.
  45. Peninsulares
    • Who: Spanish born or mainland Spaniard
    • What: Caste system in New World/New Spain where peninsulares held the high offices of government compared to other racial groups.
    • When: Spanish colonial period
    • Where: New World
    • Why: Peninsulares eventually became resented by indigenous groups, leading to revolution.
  46. Petits blancs
    • Who: Whites without money but still have rights
    • What: often times overseers not much money
    • When: Before Haitian Revolution
    • Where: In Haiti
    • Why: Hated Grands Blancs and Gens de Couleur as they had more money however they still had more Rights than the richer mixed occupants
  47. Francisco Pizarro
    • Who:  Spanish Conquistador
    • What: Famous Spanish conquistador
    • When: 1535
    • Where: Incan Empire in Peru
    • Why: The conflict between two Indigenous brothers, Atahualpa and Huascar, over Incan rule helped his conquest. He became very famous and helped to form the image of conquistadors as wealthy and successful
  48. Potosi
    • Who: Bourbon control of area
    • What: Economically important Silver mines
    • When: 1535
    • Where:  Viceroyalty of theh Rio de la Plata
    • Why: Important because as part of separation of Northern Peru due to Bourbon Reforms, the economic benefits from the silver mines in the area went to Buenos Aires, leading to hardships in Cuzco and Lima...leading to uprisings through Spanish colonial America.
  49. Reconquista
    • Who: Muslims/Christians
    • What: The period of Christian state expansion on the peninsula at the expense of the Muslim states.  Christian kings, drove Muslims from Iberia.
    • When: 1212-1492
    • Where: Iberian Peninsula
    • Why:  Resulted in the Iberian Peninsula, and thus eventually the colonies, becoming Roman Catholic Christian states, exerting social and religious control of those areas.  This included the expansion of Christianity through the Jesuits in the Americas.
  50. Relay System
    • Who: Spanish Conquistadors
    • What: System for conquest in the Americas where conquistadors landed in one spot and took over other areas from there
    • When: 1500s
    • Where: Spanish America
    • Why: This form of conquest allowed quick expansion and rule over many areas to bring in a lot of income very quickly also it allowed the spanish to discover hidden lands while establishing a home base or place in which to fall back to
  51. Repartimiento
    • Who: Indigenous workers and Spanish conquerers in Americas
    • What: System that replaced encomienda in the Americas temporary allotment of workers
    • When: 1550-1650
    • Where: Spanish Americas
    • Why: To keep the hard working indigenous busy and in theory give the spanish crown money while returning the favors to the indigenous making a more fair system however this was only in theory in reality this systems rules  were easily bended in the Spanishs favor making it just as bad as encomienda
  52. Requirement
    • Who: Spanish and Indigenous People
    • What: A document read by the Spanish to the Indigenous telling them their options are to either work with the pope and spanish or the Spanish will violently rule over them
    • When: 1513
    • Where: Spanish America
    • Why: It made the spanish feel as if they did their duties warning the indigenous and laying forth the options when in reality the Spanish knew the indigenous wouldn't listen as their was a communication gap and this document just gave reasoning for spanish behind a brutal conquest
  53. Sor Junana de las Cruz
    • Who: Prominent Mexican, Catholic nun author
    • What:  One of the most notable poets/authors in the Americas
    • When:17th century (1651-1695)
    • Where: Mexico
    • Why: Documented the life and history of New Spain, particularly focusing on the difficulty women and other minorities faced in a world they were not welcome in academic or artistic communities.
  54. Spanish Constitution of 1812
    • Who: Cadiz Cortes (Spain's first sovereign assembly) with representative from Viceroyalty of Peru and Viceroyalty of New Spain.
    • What:  Established principles of universal male suffrage (equal male vote, despite race), national sovereignty, constitutional monarchy, land governance, and freedom of press.
    • When: 1812
    • Where: Isla de Leon....Spanish territory protected by British during French occupation
    • Why:   Considered most liberal constitution of the time but never fully in effect since most of Spain still held/ruled by the French at the time.  However, it allowed for establishment of local governments in the colonies through indirect elections benefitting the wealthy and socially prominent over the hereditary aristocracy in the area.
  55. Syncretism
    • Who: European Catholics and indigenous people
    • What: Blending/merging of several originally discrete traditions, especially pertaining to theology, mythology and religion.
    • When: 16th century
    • Where: Colonies
    • Why:  This concept was important, because one goal of colonization was to 'convert' the indigenous people to Catholicism.  However, the 'Catholicism' indigenous people adopted was comprised of a blending of the symbols of Catholicism (cross/rosary) with traditional spiritual symbols (piles of stones to protect travelers).  It was one area of native culture the Europeans could not completely control.
  56. Touissant L'Overture
    • Who: General Touissant L'Overture
    • What: Considered the leader of the Haitian Revolution.  Let 1791 slave rebellion in Saint Domingo eventually establishing control over whole island through political and military tactics.
    • When: 1743-1803
    • Where: Haiti
    • Why: The success of the revolution transformed lives of slaves in Haiti by setting them free and living in an independent black state.
  57. Treaty of Tordesillas
    • Who: Spain and Portugal
    • What: Division of land by pope in Americas between the two
    • When: 1494
    • Where: The Americas and European countries
    • Why: The pope uses his power to make two rivaling countries content on land property lines within the new world.  This is not rigidly followed.
  58. Tupac Amaru Revolt
    • Who: Tupac Amaru II, an upper-class Inca/Indian
    • What: Rebellion originally led by Tupac Amaru aimed at Spanish administrators/leaders in the colony.
    • When: 1790, after Bourbon Reforms
    • Where: Near Cuzco
    • Why: In response to tax increases by Spain, Tupac called for rebellion, motivated by American Rebellion and Spanish involvement in the war.  Believed Inca would rule again with British support.  Tupac and family eventually caught and executed (drawn and quartered).  Rebellion would continue unsuccessfully with his rebels.  Over 80000 mestizos and Indians killed, resulting in banning elements of Incan culture such as clothing and language.
  59. Vincent Ogé
    • Who: Weathly free black man
    • What: Instigated revolt against white colonial authorities in French Saint-Domingue from Oct-Dec 1790.
    • When:1755-1791
    • Where: Cap-Haitien, Haiti
    • Why:  Pre-cursor to massive slave uprising of August 1791 beginning the Haitian Revolution.
  60. Virgin of Guadelupe
    • Who: Indigenous people
    • What: Beliefs of church instilled in a relatable way towards the indigenous
    • When: Colonial period
    • Where: Latin America
    • Why: It is a story that brings a Indigenous Virgin similar to the Catholic Virgin Mary to the new world creating a new relatable Church to convert indigenous. This helps to make Spaniards feel good about themselves and makes glorifies conquest by saving uninformed peoples.  Also it makes the Pope look good with many new converts.
  61. Zambo
    • Who: Colonists in Spanish America
    • What: Racial term to identify individuals in the Americas who are mixed African and Native American ancestry.
    • When: 17th century
    • Where: Spanish and Portuguese Empires
    • Why:  This label was part of the 'casta' system in which racial classification was used to tax and establish social classes within the society.  The 'whiter' someone was, the more they were perceived as higher in society.