AS level Physics unit 1 particle physics part a

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  1. inside the atom there are electrons in
    shells and sub shells around the nucleus
  2. the nucleus consists of
    protons and neutrons
  3. the electron is .... charged
    negatively charged
  4. the proton is ..... charged
  5. nucleons
    protons and neutrons
  6. coulomb (C)
    unit of charge equal to the electrical charge transferred by a steady current of 1 ampere in 1 second
  7. elementary charge (e)
    electric charge carried by a proton or equivalently the value of the electric charge carried by an electron
  8. e =
  9. proton relative mass
  10. proton absolute mass
  11. proton relative charge
  12. proton absolute charge
  13. neutron relative mass
  14. neutron absolute mass
  15. neutron relative charge
  16. neutron absolute charge
  17. electron relative mass
  18. electron absolute mass
  19. X
  20. A
    mass number/nucleon number
  21. Z =
    atomic number (number of protons)
  22. isotope
    an atom with the same number of protons (atomic number) but a different number of neutrons (mass number)
  23. each different type of nucleus is known as a
  24. specific charge
    charge of a specific particle divided by its mass
  25. nucleus of has a specific charge of

    = 9.58x10^7Ckg^-1
  26. current theories suggest that there are only four types of interaction in the universe between particles
    • gravity 
    • electromagnetic force 
    • weak interaction 
    • strong interaction
  27. gravity
    • the force acts between all particles in the universe and has an infinite range (however reduces in strength according to the inverse square law) . 
    • at an atomic scale it has negligible influence , as it is the weakest fundamental force in the universe . 
    • gravitation is mediated by the gravitation (mediation)
  28. electromagnetic force
    • this force acts between any charged particles . it can either be repulsive (same charge) or attractive (different charges) . 
    • the electromagnetic force is responsible for keeping molecules together . 
    • the electromagnetic force is mediated by virtual photons
  29. weak interaction
    • this force acts on all known fermions or rather all particles with a 1/2 integer spin (quarks , leptons and baryons but not bosons-elemental bosons and baryons)
    • the weak interaction acts over a very short range (roughly an atto-meter 1X10^-18) . Over this range it is many times stronger than gravitation (roughly 10^33)
    • the weak interaction is responsible for electromagnetic decay . the weak interaction is mediated by W and Z bosons (elemental particles)
  30. strong force
    • the force is observable in two areas . on the small scale the strong interaction is responsible holding quarks together in hadrons , on the larger scale it binds protons and neutrons together inside the atomic nucleolus (when talked about in terms of binding protons and neutrons together it is referred to as the strong nuclear force or the residual strong force)  
    • the strong force binding quarks together is mediated by gluons , while the mediator responsible for binding protons and neutrons together is the pion or Pi meson

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AS level Physics unit 1 particle physics part a
2013-10-01 17:24:19
really struggled this

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