3215: key concepts

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3215: key concepts
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2013-12-04 14:11:03
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  1. Study site
    • The overall location for a study (e.g.,
    • Portland)
  2. Multisite studies
    • •Tend to yield more diverse group of study participants, potentially enhancing
    • generalizability of findings
  3. research Setting
    • •The specific location where information
    • is gathered (e.g., in an urban community clinic)
  4. Qualitative studies setting
    • typically take place in naturalistic settings by
    • researchers who engage in fieldwork
  5. Quantitative studies setting
    often work in more controlled settings.
  6. people cooperating in qualitative studies are known as/called?
    study participants or informants
  7. people being studied in quantitative research are known as/called ?
    subjects or study participants
  8. concepts
    are abstractions of particular aspects of human behavior or characteristics [pain, weight]
  9. constructs
    are slightly more complex abstractions [self-care]
  10. theories and conceptual models role in concepts
    it knits concepts into coherent system that purports to explain phenomena or some aspect of the world
  11. theory
    is an explanation of some aspect of reality
  12. qualitative theories
    the investigators use information from study participants inductively yo develop a theory firmly rooted in the participants experience
  13. quantitative theories
    often start with a theory or conceptual model and, using deductive reasoning, make predictions about how phenomena would behave in the real worldif the theory were true
  14. variable
    • a characteristic or quality that takes on different values i.e. that varies from one person to the next
    • example: blood type, weight, length of stay in hospital

    this term is used almost exclusively in quantitative research
  15. types of variables
    • continuous 
    • categorical 
    • independent 
    • dependent
  16. continuous variable
    example: height, weight 

    the numbers range, theres no set point
  17. categorical variable
    example: marital status, gender

    either or, your either female or male etc.
  18. independent variable
    the presumed cause [of a dependent variable]
  19. dependent variable
    • the presumed effect [of an independent variable]
    • often referred to as the outcome variable or outcome
    • example: smoking [ind var] >>> lung cancer [Dep var]
  20. in terms of "PICO" the dependent and independt variable corresponds to which letters
    dependent corresponds to the "O" 

    independent corresponds to the "I" and "C"
  21. conceptual definition
    the abstract or theoretical meaning of a concept being studied
  22. conceptual definition in qualitative studies
    conceptual definition of a key phenomena may be a major end product, reflecting and intent to have the meaning of concepts defined by those being studied
  23. conceptual definition qualitiative study
    conceptual definition of a key phenomena may be a major end product, reflecting and intent to have the meaning of concepts defined by those being studied
  24. conceptual definition quantitative study
    researchers must define concepts at the onset, because they must decided how the variables will be observed and measured
  25. operational definition
    the operations [measurements] a researcher must perform to collect the desired information
  26. data
    [singular = datum]: the pieces of information researchers collect in a study
  27. data set
    the entirety of data gathered for all study participants
  28. quantitative data
    collection of numerical data
  29. qualitative data
    collection of narrative [verbal] data
  30. relationships
    is a bond or connection between two or more variables/phenomena [i.e. relationship between smoking and lung cancer]
  31. cause-and-effect relationships
    • - casual 
    • - i.e. cigarette smoking and lung cancer
  32. relationships in quantitative studies
    interested in the relationship between variables and outcomes
  33. relationships in qualitative studies
    may seek patterns of association as a way of illuminating the underlying meaning and dimensional of phenomena of interest
  34. experimental research
    • - researchers actively introduce an intervention or treatment 
    • - is called clinical trials in medical research
    • - designed to test casual relationships
  35. nonexperimental research
    • - researchers collect data without intervening or introducing treatments [considered bystanders]
    • - is called observation research in medical research
  36. types of qualitative descriptive research
    • - grounded theory 
    • - phenomenological research 
    • - ethnographic research
  37. grounded theory research
    • - seeks to understand key social psychological processes that occur in a social setting
    • - major component was the discovery of a core variable that is central in explaining what is going on in that social scene
  38. functional relationship
    • i.e. gender and life expectancy
    • – one thing doesn’t cause the other but they go hand in hand
  39. phenomenological research
    • focuses on the lived experiences of humans
    • - is a approach to thinking about what life experiences of people are like and what they mean
  40. ethnographic research
    • - focuses on the patterns, lifeways, and experiences of a cultural group in a holistic fashion
    • - strive to learn from members of a cultural group, to understand their world view, and to describe their customs and norms
  41. phases in quantitative research
    •Phase 1: Conceptual Phase

    •Phase 2: Design & Planning

    •Phase 3: Empirical Phase

    •Phase 4: Analytic Phase

    •Phase 5: Dissemination Phase
  42. quantitative research phase 1: conceptual phase
    [involves activities with a strong conceptual element. Skills of creativity, deductive reasoning, and a grounding in existing research evidence on the toping of interest in needed

    •Formulating/delimiting the problem

    •Reviewing related literature

    •Undertaking clinical fieldwork

    •Defining the framework and developing conceptual definitions

    •Formulating hypotheses
  43. quantitative research phase 2: Design & Planning
    the design and planning phase [researchers make decisions about the methods and procedures to be used to address the research question

    •Formulating a research design

    •Developing intervention protocols

    •Identifying the population

    •Designing the sampling plan

    • •Specifying
    • methods to measure variables and collect data

    •Developing methods to protect human/animal rights

    •Finalizing the research plan
  44. quantitative research phase 3: empirical phase
    involves collecting the research data 

    •Collecting the data

    •Preparing data for analysis
  45. quantitative research phase 4: analytic phase
    data gathering must be prepared for analysis and interpretation 

    • •Analyzing the data (through statistical
    • analysis)

    •Interpreting results
  46. quantitative research phase 5: dissemination phase
    • •Communicating the findings in a research report
    • (e.g., in a journal article)

    • Utilizing findings in practice
  47. Activities in Qualitative Study
    • Continuously examining and interpreting data
    • and making decisions about how to proceed based on what has already been
    • discovered

    •Conceptualizing and Planning the  Study

    •Conducting the Study

    •Disseminating the Findings
  48. Qualitative Study: Conceptualizing and planning the study
    • Identifying the research problem – begin with broad topic
    • Doing a literature review
    • Selecting sites and gaining entrée
    • Making broad design decisions, planning to go into the field
    • Addressing ethical issues
  49. Qualitative Study: Conducting the study
    Undertaking iterative activities through emergent design

    • Making sampling decisions
    • Deciding what questions to ask
    • Collecting data
    • Evaluating integrity and quality
    • Analyzing and interpreting data
    • Making new decisions
  50. Qualitative Study: Disseminating Findings
    •Seeking publication outlets

    •Providing rich descriptions

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