Deaf Culture Test 2

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  1. Deaf Mutes – why misleading for both hearing and deaf community
    Deaf people were not entirely mute.  Some were hard of hearing and could speak reasonably well; yet others had speech training and could use the voice.

    Deaf people dislike "mute" because over the years it came to mean an inability to speak on one's own behalf, a lack of voice.

    Also mute and dumb were increasingly being used in the popular literature to mean "lack of intelligence" more often than lack of ability to speak.
  2. Evolution of deaf theater
    For most of its history, Deaf theater did not require voice. It was intended for a signing audience. Today almost all theater with Deaf actors will be accompanied by voice. (the audience has changed from only within the community to more public arenas)

    Deaf actors were now sharing the stage with speaking actors causing their performances to change and the choice of material to change.
  3. 1940 – vaudeville/comedy/singing/dancing
    A few films of the Los Angeles Club for the Deaf still survive showing the style of performance of the time.

    vaudeville- short comedy sketches, blackface performances

    Singing in the form of rhythmic clapping or dancing to popular tunes like "Yankee Doodle"
  4. Wolf Bragg
    Popular Deaf club performer in the 1930's

    Conceived the idea of mounting full length play productions

    Produced signed translations of mainstream plays
  5. David Hays

    Broadway set designer

    1966 received funding from the federal government and began a new national theater of signing performances for hearing audience

    "It is my conviction...that the manual language theater can be developed into a startlingly beautiful medium...we must evolve methods of performance which will create an art no longer merely a way of bringing theater to the handicapped but which is a brilliant new form brought to all of us by the deaf."

    Refused to allow the theater to do mime

    Hearing actors would not be disembodied voices behind a curtain but visibly moving across the stage as they voiced the lines of the deaf actors
  6. Bernard Bragg
    Son of Wolf Bragg

    Performer in Deaf club theater

    Worked with David Hays to set up new Deaf theater
  7. Know impact of Deaf theater in 1966-1967
    By refusing to do mime, David Hays set the course of American signed language theater to this day.
  8. NTD
    National Theater of the Deaf

    Began 1966-1967 by Daniel Hays with much assistance of Bernard Bragg

    Used signed language accompanied by voicing actors included in the performance
  9. Federal Laws 1973 – Sections 501-504
    Rehabilitation Act of 1973

    501- prohibits discrimination against disabled in any federal agency

    504- expands the protection to include any federally supported program
  10. Public Law 94-142
    Education for All Handicapped Children Act 1975

    public school districts were required to admit and provide education to any deaf and disabled children
  11. ADA 1990
    Americans with Disabilities Act

    guaranteed access in commercial spaces as well as public ones

    Television manufacturers are now required to install a captioning decoder chip in all televisions larger than 13 inches

    Hotels have to be accessible to the disabled, including providing television equipped with decoder chip

    Deaf people who wish to attend union meetings or workplace training can request interpreters who can both sign and voice
  12. William Stokoe
    Hearing scholar at Gallaudet

    Proved ASL was a true language with a structure
  13. Sign Language Dictionary
    Signs were listed not by their translations in English but by their internal structure

    *Stokoe, Croneberg & Casterline
  14. Gilbert Eastman
    Deaf Drama professor at Gallaudet vehemently despised Stokoe because

    • * hearing outsider
    • *Represented language in bizarre form
    • *Using "nonsensical symbols
    • *trampling language for own gain and profit
    • *Called what he did a "vanity project"
  15. linguistic principles
    First Sign Language Dictionary written "on linguistic principles" - on its own terms, rather than by derivation or translation through another language
  16. structural linguistics
    Academic discipline- 1960's wanted to compare world langugaes
  17. Sign Language
    for older generations it was known simply as "the sign language"
  18. Ameslan
    Lou Fant published a book with the name Ameslan as an amalgamation of "American Sign Language"
  19. ASL
    became "the American Sign Language" then "American Sign Language" then "Ameslan" to simply ASL

    at first some were concerned about the new name

    worried about it being considered something separate from English

    the educated elite claimed they used a language closer to English while claiming it was the uneducated "grassroots" that used ASL
  20. Lou Fant

    1972 published a book

    coined term Ameslan 

    believed that unlike English Ameslan was communicated visually not linearly 

    believed in "pure" sign language with no fingerspelling

    relied on images created through signs to build sentences
  21. Pidgin Sign Language
    claimed the educated elite were using a language closer to English called it PSE- Pidgin Signed English

    The phrase Pidgin Sign English (PSE, sometimes also 'Pidgin Signed English') is often used to describe the different contact languages that arise between the English language and either British Sign Language, New Zealand Sign Language, Auslan or American Sign Language, but the term is increasingly falling out of favor.
  22. Contact Sign Language
    is a variety or style of language that arises from contact between a deaf sign language and an oral language (or the written or manually coded form of the oral language). Contact languages also arise between different sign languages, although the term pidgin rather than contact sign is used to describe such phenomena.Contact sign has been characterized as "a sign language that has elements of both [a] natural sign language and the surrounding [oral] language
  23. Dorothy Miles
    First of ASL poets

    signs evoke images but translation to English is preserved
  24. Evon Black
    Performs one woman shows about African American Deaf culture

    brings the history of Black deaf school to the public stage
  25. impact of videotaping
    Sign poets began to "publish" poetry and videotapes to ASL students 

    • can be purchased for home or classroom viewing
    • - possible that the change from large auditoriums to small, intimate domestic and educational spaces will affect sign poetry and make it more formal and stilted, transforming what used to be "oral" and face to face into something more like written poetry, to be viewed over and over again for formal purposes
  26. background of Tom Humphries and how he became Deaf
    Grew up isolated in a small town away from any other Deaf people.

    Didn't know ASL.

    Went to Gallaudet- couldn't communicate with anyone and realized that he wasn't the only one (not special)

    Realized he was living as a "hearing person who couldn't hear"

    At Gallaudet he wasn't just learning about Deaf people he was "in the process of becoming Deaf."
  27. background of Carol Padden
    • CODA
    • Hard of Hearing
    • Parents, 3 of 4 grandparents and brother Deaf
    • Parents worked at Gallaudet
    • went to public school in 3rd grade
  28. definition of linguistics
    An experience of moving between two languages that were equivalent in power yet different in what they expressed.
  29. difference between hearing impaired and Deaf
    Hearing impaired is used for those who do not hear but don't use ASL

    Deaf have a shared culture and language (ASL)
  30. definition of Deaf Culture
    way of describing the lives of Deaf people focused on beliefs and practices, particularly the central role of sign language in everyday life of the community
  31. April 2003 – National Institute of Health announcement
    • The sequencing of the human genome was complete- Human Genome Project

    Indentified almost 30,000 genes that make up human beings including those involved in genetic deafness
  32. Cochlear Implant (CI)
    surgically implanted electronic device that directs electrical impulses to the cochlea to stimulate hearing
  33. Harlan Lane
    an eloquent hearing speaker and scientist wrote several articles questioning the goals and the claims of cochlear implant specialists but he was severely criticized by parents of def children with implants as being romantic about deafness and alarmist about the dangers of the surgery
  34. Sound and Fury
    Oscar nominated documentary brought home the intensity of emotion that surrounds parents who make decisions for or against a CI
  35. problem of social rehabilitation programs for CI
    eerily reminiscent of the "oralist" programs that were put into place at the turn of the century in schools for the deaf, where schools prohibited use of sign language in the classroom. 

    Some parents support separating their implanted child not because they are against sign language but because they are against its use in the early years of development when the child most needs exposure to speech

    The risks are: delaying exposure to sign language is dangerous because children who learn any language late in life run the risk of suffering the effects of language delay.

    It separates the child from a Deaf environment and culture.
  36. bilingualism
    why is bilingualism encouraged in hearing children but not deaf?

    Programs can be developed that teach implanted children both speech and sign language simultaneously so that benefits of bilingual acquisition in two modalities can be passed on to each new generation of deaf children.

    Instead the trend is a dangerously regressive one, threatening to return to the oralist project
  37. genetics is reason for how much of deafness at birth or early childhood
  38. Alexander Bell’s Memoir upon Foundation of Deaf Variety of Human Race
    Addressed "problems" of genetics

    Upset because deaf mutes marry other deaf mutes (they meet each other at schools and propagation)

    Considered it a calamity to the world
  39. 3 classification of deaf
    • deaf– born
    • illness
    • genetic transmission
  40. Be able to write on problems with CI’s and with Human Genome Project from point of view of
    CI- implant the body, do NOT encourage sign

    Genetics-if the deafness gene is altered other genetic conditions will be altered too
Card Set:
Deaf Culture Test 2
2013-10-14 19:48:44
Deaf Culture Test

Deaf Culture Test 2
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