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2009-12-07 04:00:56
Exam review

chapters 5
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  1. Social Interaction
    Communicating face to face, ased on norms role and statuses
  2. Status
    recognized social position
  3. Status set
    entire ensemble of statuses occupied by individual
  4. ascribed status
    involuntary status
  5. achieved status
    vountary status
  6. master status
    public identity (major status)
  7. roles
    sets of expected behaviours
  8. role set
    cluster of roles attached to single status
  9. norms
    accepted ways of doing things
  10. emotion managements
    people obeying feeling rules
  11. emotion labour
    emotion management that many people do as their job
  12. exchange theory
    holds that social interaction involves trade in valued resources
  13. rational choice theory
    focuses on the way interacting people weigh the benefits and costs of interaction
  14. dramaturgical analysis
    views social interaction as a sort of play
  15. role distancing
    involves giving the impression that we are just goin through emotions
  16. ethnomethodology
    study of how people make snese of what others do
  17. stereotype
    rigid views of how members of various groups act
  18. conflict theories of social interaction
    emphasize that when people interact, their statuses are often arranged in a hierarchy.
  19. Domination
    mode of interaction in which nearly all power is concentrated in the hands of people of similiar status.
  20. cooperation
    basis of social interaction i nwhich power is more or less equally distributed
  21. competition
    is a mode of intearction in which power is unequally distributed
  22. exchange theory
    exchanging valued resources and punishments.... homans, blau
  23. Rational choice theory
    maximizing agains and minimizing losses....coleman, hechter
  24. symbolic interactionism
    inerpreting negotiating and modifying norms roles and statuses, blumer denzin
  25. dramaturical analysis
    impressoin management... goffman
  26. Ethno-methodology
    conforming to preexisting norms.. garinkel
  27. conflict theory
    complying with status heirarchies... Bourdiu, collins
  28. Bureacracy
    large impersonal orginization
  29. social network
    bounded set of individuals who are linked ny the exchange of material or emotional resources
  30. dyad
    social relationship between two nodes or social units
  31. triad
    social relationship among three noeds or social units
  32. social group
    comprises of one or more networks of people who identify with one and other
  33. social category
    comprises people who share a similar status but do not identify with one and another
  34. primary gorups
    norms roles and stauses are agreed on but are not put in writing.
  35. groupthink
    group pressure to conform despite individual misgivings
  36. in group
    members who belong to a group
  37. out group
    people who do not belong to a group
  38. reference group
    comprises of people against whom an individual evaluates
  39. formal orginizations
    secondary groups designed to achieve explicit objectives
  40. dehumanizations
    occurs when bureaucracies treat clients as standar cases and personnel as cogs in a giant machine
  41. bureaucratic ritualism
    becoming so preoccupied with rules and regs.. that they make it difficult for the orginization to fulfill its goals
  42. oligarchy
    rule of the few.... few people in power that can change things ex. kings queens
  43. bureaucatic inertia
    rigid bureaucracies to conitnue their policies even when their clients need change
  44. Laissez faire leadership
    allows subordinates to work things out largely on their own
  45. authoritarian leadership
    demands strict compliance from subordinates
  46. democratic leadership
    offesr more guidance than the laissez faire variety but less control than the authoriarian type
  47. orginizational environment
    comprises a host of economic political and cultural forces that lie outside an orginization
  48. societies
    collective interacting people who share a culture
  49. foraging societies
    people live by seaching for wild plants and hunting wild animals
  50. horticultural societies
    people in which people domesticate plants and use simple hand tools to garden
  51. Deviance
    occurs when someone departs froma norm
  52. informal punishment
    mild sanction that is imposed during face to face interaction.... least serious
  53. stigmatized
    people who are negatively evaluated because of a marker
  54. formal punishment
    takes place when the judicial system penalizes someone for breaking the law
  55. social diversion
    minor acts of deviance, generally seen as harmless
  56. social deviations
    non criminal departures from the norms, subject to official control
  57. conflict crimes
    illegal acts that many people consider harmful to society
  58. consensus crimes
    illegal acts that nearly all people agree are bad and harm society greatly
  59. social constructionism
    argues that apparently natural or innate features of life are often sustained ny social processes that vary
  60. white collar crime
    illegal act commited by respectable high status persons in his/her work
  61. street crimes
    arson break and enter assault and other illegal acts...usually commited by that of the lower class
  62. victimless crime
    involve violations of the law in which no victim steps forward
  63. self report surveys
    respondents are asked to report their involvement in crime
  64. victimization surveys
    surveys in which people are asked whether they have been victims of crime
  65. social control
    methods of ensuring conformity
  66. motivational theories
    identify the social factors that drive people to commit deviant and criminal acts
  67. constraint theories
    identify social factors that impose deviance adn crime
  68. strain theory
    people may turn to deviance when they experience strain
  69. subculural theory
    gangs are collective adaptaions to social conditions
  70. techniqus of neutralizationg
    rationalizations that deviants and criminals use to justify their activities
  71. differential association
    holds that people learn to value deviant or non deviant lifestyles depening on whether their social environment leads them to associate more with deviants or non deviants.
  72. labeling theory
    holds deviance results not so much from the actions of the deviant from the responce of others
  73. control theory
    rewrds of deviance and crime are ample
  74. conflict theory
    holds that deviance and crime arise out of the conflict between the powerful and the powerless
  75. moral panic
    many people frevently believe that some form of deviance or crim poses a profount threat
  76. recidivism rates
    the proportion of people re arrested after an initial arrest
  77. prejedice
    attituede that judges a peron on his or her groups real imagined characteristics
  78. discrimination
    unfair treatment of people because of their group
  79. race
    idea to distinguish people based on the colour of their skin and outer characteristics
  80. scapegoat
    disadvanaged person or category of people that others blame for their own problems
  81. ethnic groups
    people whose perceivd cultural markers are deemed socially significant
  82. multiculturalism
    emphasizes tolerance of ethnic and racial differences
  83. melting pot
    ideaology of hte united states
  84. symbolic ethnicity
    nostalgic allegiance to the culture of the immigrant generation
  85. racism
    belief that a visible characterstic of a gorup such as skin colour indicates group inferiority
  86. segragation
    spatial and institutional seperation of racial ethnic groups
  87. assimilation
    process by which a minority group blends into the majoority population
  88. internal colonialism
    race or ethnic group subugating another in the same country
  89. expulsion
    frocible removal of population
  90. genocide
    intentional extermination of an entire population
  91. conquest
    forcible capture of land
  92. slavery
    ownership and control of people
  93. pluralism
    retention of racial and ethnic culture combined with equal access
  94. affiramtive action or employment equity
    policy that gives preference to members of minority
  95. Educational Achievement
    actual learning of valuable skills and knowledge
  96. educational attainment
    number of years of schooling completed
  97. assortative mating
    when marriage partners are selected based on similar criteria
  98. logic of industralism
    specifiaction by funtionalists of requirements that social institutions must satisfy before industrailsm can be achieved
  99. nationalism
    refers to sentiments emphasizing or even favouring the view that humanity is divided into limited number of populations defined by common culture.
  100. imagined communities
    sentiments of solidarity and identification with people who share particular cultural attributes
  101. meritocracy
    social hierarchy in which rank corresponds to individual capacities
  102. social exclusion
    achieved by creating barriers that restrict certain oppertunities or positions to members of one gorup to the exclusion of others
  103. collective action
    when people act in unison to bring about or resist change
  104. social movements
    collective attempts to change all or part of the political or social order by measn of rioting
  105. breakdown theory
    social movements emerge when traditional norms and pattersn of social organization are disrupted
  106. contagion
    extreme passion supposedly spreads through a crowd like a disease
  107. solidarity theory
    social movements are organixations that emerge when potential members can mobile resources
  108. resource mobilization
    process by which social movements crystallize because of the increasing organizational material and other resources of movement members
  109. union density
    number of union members in a given location as percentage of non agricultural workers
  110. frame alignment
    process by which individual interests beliefs and alues become congruent and complementary with the activies goals and ideology of social movement.