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What are the three theories of the human-animal bond?
- Social support
Who is considered to be the champion of the Human-animal bond
What is evolutionary analysis?
Looking at our evolutionary history and making inferences on the development of the human-animal-bond based.
What are the pros of evolutionary analysis
Can easily make connections
Think of the whole continuum and appreciate the whole history
We look at the positive effect we have had on animals
Design experiment and build from it
What are the cons of evolutionary analysis
- No research
- No science
- No experimentation
- No supporting data
What is unfortunate about animal behavior science?
A lot of the background is speculative
What class of animals were ethics considered for first
What is needed to make a credible assertion (8)
- Supporting data
- controls in experiment
- a measurable outcome
- avoiding biases
- a design
- question/hypothesis that is tested
What did Leo Bustad start
The people-pet partnership
What are some possible animal programs for campus
- Foster program
- Clubs with animals (horse back riding)
- speaking to a dog for presentations
What is a theory (5)
- Widely accepted
- evidence based (falsifiable)
What is a common tendency between the three theories of the human-animal-bond
They all anthropomorphize
What are the big 5 emotions for humans and dogs that relate to anthropomorphization
Who are the minds behind biophilia
- Lorenz and Tinbergen
Love of life helps support life
Humans (and animals) are hardwired to preserve the species
*Self (and species) preservation requires preservation of the environment and ecology as it benefits the self (and species)
Describe social support theory
- We are not alone
- We need others to survive and thrive
- Quasi-evolutionary (needed to be in groups to hunt)
What is some evidence for the biophilia theory
responses by people with severe cognitive dysfunction
What is some evidence for social support theory
- Psychological benefits (decreased stress)
- Developmental benefits
What are some problems with biophelia theory
what are some problems with social support theory
correlational with many mediating variables
Difficult to measure
Describe attachment theory/self psychology
Comes from developmental theory
there is a relationship between self, and self object that allows for confirmation of self
what are the three types of selfobject, and briefly describe them. Which one is most common in animals
- mirroring (affirmation and confirmation)
- -My animal loves me unconditionally)
- Idealizing (admiration and acceptance)
- - I feel confident when I am with my animal
- Twinship (essential likeness)
- -My animal and I can read each others minds
mirroring relationship is the most comon
What are the three genres of science literature and provide an example
- Primary (report of a study)
- Secondary (review or position paper)
- Tertiary (Encyclopedia)
Describe the pyramid of evidence
- Testimonial (bottom)
- -a point of view, mostly after the fact
- Case study
- -a study on one person/incidence
- Scientific method
- -Study on a large group of people
- -Uses each scientific method study as one data point => lots of science!
Describe the scientific method
- Starts of with a question
- Analysis (usually leads to more questions)
What are the types of designs (4)
- randomized controlled experiment
Describe an observational design
No control and no causal conlusion
Describe a correlational study
No control over the variables, but look at how the two variables change.
Describe a Quasi-experiment
Have control with random groups, but no random assigning to groups
Describe a randomized experiment
A high amount of control with true randomization. Can make a causation conclusion
What are the methods of data collection? Type (2) and location (2)?
- Self report and observation
- field and lab
What is pet owner ship likely associated with
decreased cardiovascular disease
What are some things animals can help with in terms of human health?
- Cardiovascular benefits
- Reduction of pain
- disease detection
What are the three models of effect
- Causation model
- Correlation model
- Mediated variable model
What are the benefits for a causation model? Draw backs?
Simple and easy to study
Can't prove it, not practical
What are the benefits of the correlational model? Draw backs?
Accounts for all findings
How can we differentiate between which group the individual is in (example, is someone healthy because of the pet, or are they just healthy?)
What is a benefit for the mediating variable model? Draw backs?
Specific for each case and guide a lot of research
We need a lot more research and we don't know which mediating variable or combination is effective
What is some practical consideration in conducting a social science research (5)
- -who and how obtained
reliability and validity of measures
What is important to consider in regards to the number of participants in an experiment
There will be a huge disconnect between ideal and likely numbers
What are the three core principles of ethics
- Respect for persons
- respect for welfare
What are some physical well-being benefits of pets
Physiological parameters are within normal limits (hear rate, pressure and pain response)
Physical activity and exercise
What are some psychological well-being benefits of owning a pet
- Self esteem
- Self acceptance
- Increased sociability
- Purpose in life
- Continued growth and development
- Positive relationships with others
What is a phenomenological study?
A study with very few people, but is very in depth
What are sources of loneliness in seniours
Loss of shared experience with people the same age
Loss of health
Loss of car
What is the model that is the most plausible explanation for psychological health effects of pets? Physical effects?
It could be correlational, but most likely mediating variable (take dog for walk, meet new people)
Physical effect is best explained by mediating variable (walk dog, get healthy)
How does the biophilia theory support psychological well-being from animals
We are drawn to care for animals because it supports our psychological well being
How does the social support theory support the psychological benefits from animals?
We are less lonely because of the animals.
How does the self-psychology theory support psychological benefits from animals?
Dogs give owners confidence. Owners internalize this as self confidence.