AGR 282 Quiz 3
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AGR 282 Quiz 3
Bones Directional Terms
Bones of animals
What are the three bone features?
What are articular surfaces?
covered by articular cartilage
has joint surfaces
What are joint surfaces?
Smooth areas of compact bone, where bones come in contact with one another to form joints
What are the 3 types of articular surfaces?
What is a Condyle and give an example?
Large, rounded surface of bone
: Distal ends of humerus and femur, occipital bone
What is a Head and give an example?
Rounded surface of proximal ends of long bones
: proximal ends of humerus and femur
What is a Facet and give an example?
Flat articular surface
: Carpal and tarsal bones, vertebrae
What are processes?
Lumps, bumps, and projections
What kind of processes form joints?
Processes that have smooth surface (heads and condyles)
Processes that have rough surfaces are for what?
muscle or tendon attachment
*Tendon - connects muscle to bone
Give examples of Processes
Heads, condyles, vertebral processes, spine on scapula, greater tobercle, greater trochanter
: Parietal Bone
: Frontal Bone
: Zygomatic Bone
: Lacrimal Bone
What are the two types of holes/depressed areas?
What is a foramen?
Hole in bone
Allows for nerves, blood vessels, lymph vessels to enter bone
What is a fossa?
Depressed areas in bone
Usually associated with tendons for muscle attachment
What is the axial skeleton?
Bones of the head and trunk of the body
Made up of: Bones of cranium, ear, and face
What are the bones of the cranium?
What are the bones of the face?
Mandible (1 or 2, depends on species)
Forms the base of the skull
Connects to the atlas
What is the foramen magnum?
Large opening at the base of occipital bone (spinal cord passes through here)
Contains the middle and inner ear
Forms the TMJ (temporomandibular joint) with mandible
Contains the Cornual Process (horn core around which the horn develops)
Houses the incisors - in species that have incisors
Ruminants do not have incisors, but still have incisive bones
Maxilla (maxillary) Bone
Houses canines, premolars, molars
Houses lacrimal sac
What is the lacrimal sac?
Compartment within the lacrimal bone that aids in tear drainage
Forms the TMJ with the temporal bones
Only movable bone in the skull
Shaft of the mandible - houses teeth
Ramus of mandible - forms the TMJ, tendon attachment
In what species is the mandible separated by cartilaginous joints?
Dogs, cats, cattle
In what species is the mandible fused?
Horses and pigs
Bones of the limbs
: Thoratic and Pelvic Limb
Bones of Thoratic Limb (Forelimb)
Bones of Pelvic Limb (Hind limb)
Pelvis (Ilium, Ischium, Pubis)
Distal end forms the socket portion of the ball-and-socket shoulder joint (humerus forms the ball portion)
: forms ball portion of the ball-and-socket shoulder joint
: Has a head
Proximal processes are where shoulder muscles attach
: forms elbow joint with radius and ulna
Distal end is the condyl
What is the olecranon fossa?
Deep indentation on the back surface of the humerus, above the condyle
Forms a major portion of the elbow joint
What is the Olcecranon Process?
Forms point of elbow, muscle attachment
Together known as Carpus/Tarsus
Rows of bones do have individual names
Appearance determined by what kind of foot the animal has
Digit - Toe or finger
each digit is made up of 2 or 3 bones called phalanges (bones that make up digits)
Irregular bones, found in tendons
Can change direction suddenly over the surface of joints
Allows muscles to exert powerful forces on the bones without the tendons wearing
Develops as three separate bones that fuse into a solid structure
2 halves of the pelvis joined by pelvic symphaysis
: Ilium, Ischium, Pubis
Obturator Foramina (Foramens)
The deep socket portion of the ball-and-socket joint of the hip; formed where the 3 pelvic bones meet
Obturator Foramina (foramens)
2 large holes on either side of the pelvic symphysis; primary function is to lighten the pelvis
: forms ball portion of the ball-and-socket hip joint
: has a head
Proximal processes are where muscles attach
: forms stifle joint with patella and tibia
distal end is the condyle
similar to human knee joint
Largest sesamoid bone in body
Helps protect tendons in the stifle joint
Forms the stifle joint with the femur above it
Forms the hock with the tarsus below it
Non weight bearing bone
Presence varies from species to species
Complete in pigs, dogs,cats
fused with the tibia in cattle
Has regressed nearly completely in horses
Common term for the bones, joints, and tissues found in this region
Spinal or vertebral column
series of individual irregular bones (vertebrae)
Extends from skull to tip of tail
Vertebrae not individually named
Identified by numbering system
Articulates with the occipital bone
Connects spinal column to skull
Fuse together to form a solid structure called sacrum
5 regions of spinal or vertebral column
(Region Name - Where it's Located - Abbreviations)
Cervical - Neck - C
Thoracic - Chest - T
Lumbar - Abdomen - L
Sacral - Pelvis - S
Coccygeal - Tail - Cy
3 Vertebral Characteristics
Processes (Spinous and Transverse)
Body Vertebrae Characteristic
Strongest, most positive portion
Ventral side of spinal column
Adjacent vertebrae bodies separated by invertebrate disks that are made of cartilage and act as shock absorbers
Arch Vertebrae Characteric
Dorsal side of spinal column
Hollow opening formed by body and arch or vertebra - houses and protects the spinal cord
Spinal cord passes through here
Processes Vertebrae Characteristic
Allow for tendon attachment (Muscle Attachment)
Number of ribs is usually equal to the number of thoracic vertebrae
Heads (proximal ends) of ribs form joints with the thoracic vertebrae
Ventral ends of ribs are made of cartilage
Ventral ends of cartilage
Bonds directly to sternum
Connects to adjacent cartilaginous part of rib
Ends in muscles of thoracic wall (floating ribs)
Toward the head
Toward the tail
Toward the tip of the nose (Used only on the head)
Toward the top surface of the body
Toward the bottom (belly) surface of the body
Toward the median plane
Away from the median plane
Toward the body (appendages)
Away from the body (appendages)
Ground/back surface of front limb distal to the carpus
Ground/back surface of hind limb distal to the tarsus
Divides the body into equal left and right halves
Divides the body into left and right parts that are not necessarily equal
Divides the body into cranial and caudal parts
Divides the body into dorsal and ventral parts