AGR 282 Quiz 3

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AGR 282 Quiz 3
2013-10-02 02:14:09
Bones Directional Terms

Bones of animals
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  1. What are the three bone features?
    • Articular Surfaces
    • Processes 
    • Holes/Depressed Areas
  2. What are articular surfaces?
    • covered by articular cartilage
    • has joint surfaces
  3. What are joint surfaces?
    Smooth areas of compact bone, where bones come in contact with one another to form joints
  4. What are the 3 types of articular surfaces?
    • Condyle
    • Head
    • Facet
  5. What is a Condyle and give an example?
    • Large, rounded surface of bone
    • Example: Distal ends of humerus and femur, occipital bone
  6. What is a Head and give an example?
    • Rounded surface of proximal ends of long bones
    • Example: proximal ends of humerus and femur
  7. What is a Facet and give an example?
    • Flat articular surface
    • Example: Carpal and tarsal bones, vertebrae
  8. What are processes?
    Lumps, bumps, and projections
  9. What kind of processes form joints?
    Processes that have smooth surface (heads and condyles)
  10. Processes that have rough surfaces are for what?
    • muscle or tendon attachment
    • *Tendon - connects muscle to bone
  11. Give examples of Processes
    Heads, condyles, vertebral processes, spine on scapula, greater tobercle, greater trochanter
  12. Label
    • A: Parietal Bone
    • B: Frontal Bone
    • C: Zygomatic Bone
    • D: Lacrimal Bone
    • E: Maxilla
    • F: Incisive
    • G: Nasal
  13. Label 
    • A: Maxilla
    • B: Nasal
    • C: Lacrimal
    • D: Zygomatic
    • E: Frontal
    • F: Temporal
    • G: Parietal
    • H: Occipital
    • I: Mandible
    • J: Incisive
  14. What are the two types of holes/depressed areas?
    • Foramen
    • Fossa
  15. What is a foramen?
    • Hole in bone
    • Allows for nerves, blood vessels, lymph vessels to enter bone
  16. What is a fossa?
    • Depressed areas in bone
    • Usually associated with tendons for muscle attachment
  17. What is the axial skeleton?
    • Bones of the head and trunk of the body 
    • Made up of: Bones of cranium, ear, and face
  18. What are the bones of the cranium?
    • Frontal (2)
    • Occipital (1)
    • Parietal (2)
    • Temporal (2)
  19. What are the bones of the face?
    • Incisive (2)
    • Lacrimal (2)
    • Mandible (1 or 2, depends on species)
    • Maxillary (2)
    • Nasal (2)
    • Zygomatic (2)
  20. Occipial Bone
    • Forms the base of the skull 
    • Connects to the atlas
    • Foramen magnum
  21. What is the foramen magnum?
    Large opening at the base of occipital bone (spinal cord passes through here)
  22. Temporal Bone
    • Contains the middle and inner ear
    • Forms the TMJ (temporomandibular joint) with mandible
  23. Frontal Bone
    Contains the Cornual Process (horn core around which the horn develops)
  24. Incisive Bone
    • Houses the incisors - in species that have incisors 
    • Ruminants do not have incisors, but still have incisive bones
  25. Maxilla (maxillary) Bone
    • Upper Jaw
    • Houses canines, premolars, molars
  26. Lacrimal Bones
    Houses lacrimal sac
  27. What is the lacrimal sac?
    Compartment within the lacrimal bone that aids in tear drainage
  28. Mandible Bones
    • Lower Jaw 
    • Forms the TMJ with the temporal bones 
    • Only movable bone in the skull 
    • Shaft of the mandible - houses teeth
    • Ramus of mandible - forms the TMJ, tendon attachment
  29. In what species is the mandible separated by cartilaginous joints?
    Dogs, cats, cattle
  30. In what species is the mandible fused?
    Horses and pigs
  31. Appendicular skeleton
    • Bones of the limbs 
    • Two sections: Thoratic and Pelvic Limb
  32. Bones of Thoratic Limb (Forelimb)
    • Scapula 
    • Humerus 
    • Radius 
    • Ulna
    • Carpal Bones
    • Metacarpal Bones
    • Phalanges
  33. Bones of Pelvic Limb (Hind limb)
    • Pelvis (Ilium, Ischium, Pubis)
    • Femur
    • Tibia
    • Fibula 
    • Tarsal Bones
    • Metatarsal Bones 
    • Phalanges
  34. Scapula
    Distal end forms the socket portion of the ball-and-socket shoulder joint (humerus forms the ball portion)
  35. Humerus
    • Proximal end: forms ball portion of the ball-and-socket shoulder joint 
    • Proximal end: Has a head
    • Proximal processes are where shoulder muscles attach 
    • Distal end: forms elbow joint with radius and ulna
    • Distal end is the condyl 
    • Olecranon fossa
  36. What is the olecranon fossa?
    Deep indentation on the back surface of the humerus, above the condyle
  37. Ulna
    • Forms a major portion of the elbow joint 
    • Olcecranon Process
  38. What is the Olcecranon Process?
    Forms point of elbow, muscle attachment
  39. Carpal/Tarsal Bones
    • Together known as Carpus/Tarsus
    • Rows of bones do have individual names
  40. Metacarpal/Metatarsal Bones
    Appearance determined by what kind of foot the animal has
  41. Phalanges
    • Digit - Toe or finger
    • each digit is made up of 2 or 3 bones called phalanges (bones that make up digits)
    • Sesamoid bones
  42. Sesamoid bones
    • Irregular bones, found in tendons
    • Can change direction suddenly over the surface of joints 
    • Allows muscles to exert powerful forces on the bones without the tendons wearing
  43. Pelvis
    • Develops as three separate bones that fuse into a solid structure
    • 2 halves of the pelvis joined by pelvic symphaysis
    • 3 Parts: Ilium, Ischium, Pubis 
    • Acetabulum 
    • Obturator Foramina (Foramens)
  44. Acetabulum
    The deep socket portion of the ball-and-socket joint of the hip; formed where the 3 pelvic bones meet
  45. Obturator Foramina (foramens)
    2 large holes on either side of the pelvic symphysis; primary function is to lighten the pelvis
  46. Femur
    • Proximal end: forms ball portion of the ball-and-socket hip joint 
    • Proximal end: has a head
    • Proximal processes are where muscles attach
    • Distal end: forms stifle joint with patella  and tibia 
    • distal end is the condyle
  47. stifle joint
    similar to human knee joint
  48. Patella
    • Largest sesamoid bone in body
    • Helps protect tendons in the stifle joint
  49. Tibia
    • Forms the stifle joint with the femur above it
    • Forms the hock with the tarsus below it
  50. Fibula
    • Non weight bearing bone
    • Presence varies from species to species 
    • Complete in pigs, dogs,cats
    • fused with the tibia in cattle
    • Has regressed nearly completely in horses
  51. Hock
    Common term for the bones, joints, and tissues found in this region
  52. Spinal or vertebral column
    • series of individual irregular bones (vertebrae)
    • Extends from skull to tip of tail 
    • Vertebrae not individually named
    • Identified by numbering system
  53. Atlas Bone
    • Articulates with the occipital bone 
    • Connects spinal column to skull
  54. Sacral Vertebrae
    Fuse together to form a solid structure called sacrum
  55. 5 regions of spinal or vertebral column 
    (Region Name - Where it's Located - Abbreviations)
    • Cervical - Neck - C
    • Thoracic - Chest - T
    • Lumbar - Abdomen - L
    • Sacral - Pelvis - S
    • Coccygeal - Tail - Cy
  56. 3 Vertebral Characteristics
    • Body
    • Arch
    • Processes (Spinous and Transverse)
  57. Body Vertebrae Characteristic
    • Strongest, most positive portion
    • Ventral side of spinal column 
    • Adjacent vertebrae bodies separated by invertebrate disks that are made of cartilage and act as shock absorbers
  58. Arch Vertebrae Characteric
    • Dorsal side of spinal column
    • Vertebral foramen
  59. Vertebral Foramen
    • Hollow opening formed by body and arch or vertebra - houses and protects the spinal cord
    • Spinal cord passes through here
  60. Processes Vertebrae Characteristic
    Allow for tendon attachment  (Muscle Attachment)
  61. Ribs
    • Number of ribs is usually equal to the number of thoracic vertebrae 
    • Heads (proximal ends) of ribs form joints with the thoracic vertebrae 
    • Ventral ends of ribs are made of cartilage
  62. Ventral ends of cartilage
    • Bonds directly to sternum 
    • Connects to adjacent cartilaginous part of rib
    • Ends in muscles of thoracic wall (floating ribs)
  63. Cranial
    Toward the head
  64. Caudal
    Toward the tail
  65. Rostral
    Toward the tip of the nose (Used only on the head)
  66. Dorsal
    Toward the top surface of the body
  67. Ventral
    Toward the bottom (belly) surface of the body
  68. Medial
    Toward the median plane
  69. Lateral
    Away from the median plane
  70. Proximal
    Toward the body (appendages)
  71. Distal
    Away from the body (appendages)
  72. Palmar
    Ground/back surface of front limb distal to the carpus
  73. Plantar
    Ground/back surface of hind limb distal to the tarsus
  74. Median Plane
    Divides the body into equal left and right halves
  75. Sagittal Plane
    Divides the body into left and right parts that are not necessarily equal
  76. Transverse Plane
    Divides the body into cranial and caudal parts
  77. Dorsal Plane
    Divides the body into dorsal and ventral parts