HFD Lists

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MDekker
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238231
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HFD Lists
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2013-10-15 11:05:41
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HFD lists
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  1. As a recruit you will be evaluated on:
    • punctuality
    • teamwork
    • work ethic and initiative
    • concern for others
    • personal hygiene/grooming
    • assistance to instructors and other probationers
    • co-operation with instructors and other probationers
    • general overall observations
    • practical performance on the emergency scene
    • mechanical and physical ability
    • ability to accept and follow orders
    • notebook (organization and neatness)
    • safe working habits
    • creating a positive work environment
  2. City of Hamilton policies relevant to HFD
    • City of Hamilton bylaw 68-34
    • computer acceptable use policy
    • driver's licence policy
    • conflict of interest policy
    • employee assistance program policy
    • attendance support management plan
    • sexual harassment policy
    • policy against harassment and discrimination
    • policy against personal harassment
  3. Divisions of HFD
    • Administration/support
    • Training
    • Career suppression
    • Volunteer suppression
    • Prevention
    • Communications
    • Mechanical
  4. 2012 call break down
    • 25 862 responses
    • 66 % medical
    • 7 % alarm conditions
    • 5 % MVCs
    • 3 % false alarms
    • 17 % other (including fires)
  5. Structure fires in 2012
    • 228 total fires
    • 165 residential
    • 13 institutional
    • 9 garage/shed
    • 9 industrial
    • 11 business
    • 21 other
  6. Top 5 causes of fire in 2012
    • 1. Cooking/kitchen
    • 2. Careless smoking
    • 3. Arson/suspicious
    • 4. Electrical
    • 5. Careless use of a torch
  7. West district stations/apparatus
    • Station 1 - pump 1, rescue 1, ladder 1, platoon 1
    • Station 6 - pump 6 (HARR/CS), supply 1
    • Station 10 - ladder 10
    • Station 11 - engine 11 (marine)
    • Station 23 - pump 23 (HARR/CS)
    • Station 24 - engine 24
  8. East district stations/apparatus
    • Station 7 - engine 7
    • Station 8 - district 2, engine 8 (marine)
    • Station 9 - ladder 9, engine 9 (marine)
    • Station 12 - rescue 12 (HARR/CS), pump 12 (HARR/CS)
  9. South district stations/apparatus
    • Station 2 - district 3, pump 2, car 73 (safety officer)
    • Station 3 - engine 3 (marine/HARR/CS)
    • Station 4 - rescue 4, support 4, ladder 4, hazmat 2
    • Station 5 - engine 5
    • Station 17 - engine 17 (HARR/CS)
    • Station 20 - ladder 20
    • Station 21 - engine 21
  10. When is only one AED analysis allowed?
    Hypothermic and blunt force trauma
  11. When is the AED not to be hooked up?
    Obviously dead and penetrating trauma
  12. DNR requires what to be valid?
    • patient's name
    • date
    • signature of medical professional
    • wishes/box checked off
  13. DNR form requires what to be valid?
    • serial number
    • logo of ministry of long term health
    • logo of fire marshal's office
    • must be Ontario form
  14. What does AVPU stand for?
    • Alert
    • verbal
    • painful
    • unresponsive
  15. What does DOTS stand for?
    • deformities
    • open wounds
    • tenderness
    • swelling
  16. What does SAMPLE stand for?
    • Signs and symptoms
    • allergies
    • medications
    • previous medical history
    • last oral intake
    • events leading up to the incident
  17. What does OPQRST stand for?
    • onset
    • provoke
    • quality
    • regionalized/radiating
    • severity
    • time
  18. What is included in a vitals check?
    • pupils equal and reactive to light
    • skin temperature, colour and condition
    • rate, quality and rhythm of pulse
    • rate, quality and rhythm of respirations
    • blood pressure
  19. What are the average vital signs for a baby under 28 days old?
    • BP - 80 over 40
    • respirations - 40 to 60
    • pulse - 120 to 160
  20. What are the average vital signs for a baby between 29 days and 1 year old?
    • BP - 90 over 50
    • respirations - 30 to 40
    • pulse - 100-120
  21. What are the average vital signs for a child aged 1 to 8?
    • BP - 90 over 50
    • respirations - 16 to 24
    • pulse - 80 to 120
  22. What are the average vital signs of an adult (over 8 years of age)?
    • BP - 120 over 80
    • respirations - 12 to 20
    • pulse - 60 to 100
  23. 3 major components of smoke
    • smoke particles
    • smoke vapours
    • toxic gases (carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, and phosgene)
  24. Parts of  SCBA
    • backpack and frame
    • harness assembly
    • facepiece assembly
    • regulator assembly
  25. Parts of a breathing regulator
    • Heads-up display
    • vibralert
    • exhalation valve
    • purge valve
    • thumb latch
    • air-saver switch
  26. Indicator lights of the HUD
    • red light (right side) - low battery
    • left side - 2 green lights - full cylinder
    • 1 green light - 3/4 cylinder
    • 1 amber/yellow light - 1/2 cylinder (flashes 1/sec.)
    • 1 red light - 1/4 cylinder (flashed 10/sec.)
  27. PASS device alarm operation
    • Initial alarm after 20 seconds inactivity, lights turn red and flash alternately, can be deactivated by moving backplate
    • Full alarm locks in after 30 seconds, red lights flash simultaneously, yellow button on PASS device control console must be pushed twice to deactivate
    • At any time pushing the red button on PASS device control console will initiate full alarm
  28. Donning SCBA/beginning of shift routine checks
    • cylinder is at least 90 % full
    • air-saver switch is activated
    • open cylinder and listen for alarm
    • check gauges
    • all straps are fully extended
    • all valves are in the correct position
  29. SCBA is inspected:
    • beginning of each shift
    • after use
    • after repair
  30. Two types of regulator failure
    open - regulator is stuck in the open position.  Open purge valve and use cylinder valve to control air flow, notify officer and leave with your partner

    closed - regulator is stuck in the closed position.  Open purge valve to breathable, notify officer, and leave with your partner
  31. Major components of SCBA (from diagram)
    • facepiece
    • regulator and vibralert
    • battery compartment
    • cylinder
    • cylinder valve and gauge
    • PASS device control console
    • cylinder latch and strap
    • back frame and harness assembly
    • sensor and module lights
    • high pressure regulator
  32. Info found on label of Scott cylinder
    • date of manufacture
    • last test date
    • serial number
    • cylinder number
  33. Safety features of Scott NXGII cylinders
    rupture disk and ratchet operating knob
  34. Parts of PPE
    • helmet
    • protective hood
    • eye protection
    • bunker coat and pants
    • SCBA
    • PASS alarm
    • gloves
    • boots
  35. Protection provided by PPE
    • furnishes padding against injury
    • protection from cuts and abrasions
    • repels water
    • impact protection
    • provides thermal protection
    • provides respiratory protection
  36. 3 layers of turnout/bunker gear
    • protective outer shell
    • moisture barrier
    • thermal barrier
  37. Bunker gear protects trunk/limbs from
    • punctures and cuts
    • hot water/steam
    • elevated temperatures
    • abrasions
  38. Approved eye protection
    • Approved safety glasses
    • SCBA facepiece
  39. Hearing protection mandatory when:
    • using Hurst power tool supply or within 25' radius
    • responding to alarms in any vehicle with open jump seats
    • in cascade room during refilling/discharging cylinders
  40. Eye protection required:
    • auto ex
    • typical shop duties
    • blood or bodily fluids may be projected towards the eyes
    • acute or prolonged exposure to sunlight
    • overhaul
    • specialized operations (HARR, shore-based water rescue, etc.)
    • dealing with pressurized cylinders
    • where chemical hazards may be encountered
  41. Means of moving water
    • direct pumping
    • gravity system
    • combination system
  42. Water distribution system parts
    • primary feeders
    • secondary feeders
    • distributors
  43. Hydrant locations
    • 150 m or less in residential
    • 90 m or less in high value industrial/commercial areas
  44. Considerations for dead-end hydrants
    • know where they are
    • consider using a different main at a working fire
    • longer lines from a more distant hydrant known to have adequate supply
    • relay pumping to get adequate supply
    • flush out hydrant to remove debris prior to use
  45. Types of valves
    Indicating and nonindicating
  46. Types of indicating valves
    • post indicating valve (piv)
    • outside screw & yoke (os&y)
  47. Types of hydrants
    • wet barrel
    • dry barrel
  48. Flow/pressure types
    • static - when no water is moving
    • normal operating - pressure during period of normal consumption
    • residual - pressure left in system when water is flowing
    • flow - quantity of water flowing through an opening during hydrant test
    • elevation - pressure created by gravity, aka head pressure
  49. Hydrant colours/flow rates
    • Class AA   -   light blue  -   5675 L/min plus
    • Class A     -   green       -   3780 to 5675 L/min
    • Class B     -   orange     -   1900 to 3780 L/min
    • Class C     -   red          -   1900 L/min or less
  50. Three states of matter
    • solid
    • liquid
    • gas
  51. Types of energy
    • chemical
    • light
    • electrical
    • mechanical
    • nuclear
  52. Methods of fire spread
    • direct contact
    • conduction
    • convection
    • radiation
  53. Methods of extinguishment
    • Cool burning material
    • remove fuel
    • exclude oxygen
    • break chemical reaction
  54. Classes of fire
    • A - ordinary solid combustibles (green triangle)
    • B - flammable/combustible liquids (red square)
    • C - energized electrical equipment (blue circle)
    • D - combustible metals (yellow star)
    • K - combustible cooking oils/fats
  55. Phases of fire development
    • ignition phase
    • growth phase
    • fully developed phase
    • decay phase
  56. Signs of backdraft
    • Confined fire with a large heat build-up
    • Little visible flame from the exterior
    • No smoke showing
    • Turbulent smoke
    • Thick yellowish smoke
    • Smoke that seems to be pressurized
    • Smoke puffing from the building
    • Smoke-stained windows
  57. Components of smoke reading
    • Smoke volume
    • smoke velocity
    • smoke density
    • smoke colour
  58. Hoses used by HFD
    • double cotton jacket rubber lined (38, 65 mm)
    • synthetic double jacket rubber lined (38, 65 mm)
    • nitral/pvc (65, 100, 125 mm)
    • rubber covered (150 mm)
  59. Hose damage
    • mildew
    • hot/cold
    • mechanical
    • chemical
  60. 1 firefighter methods of making/breaking hose
    • foot-tilt method (making)
    • one-armed fireman (breaking)
    • knee-press method (breaking)
  61. 2 firefighter methods of making/breaking hose
    • 2 firefighter method (making/breaking)
    • hose key method (making/breaking)
    • stiff arm method (breaking)
  62. Hose clamps used by HFD
    Hebert (screw-down) and Akron (press down)
  63. Hose rolls used by HFD
    • Straight roll
    • donut roll
  64. Highrise pack contents
    • 38 mm hoses (2 @ 15 m lengths)
    • 65-38 mm reducer
    • 38 mm fog nozzle
    • pipe wrench
    • rubber latch strap
    • sprinkler plugs
    • collapsible hose key
  65. Components of a dry-barrel hydrant (diagram)
    Stem nut, operating stem, main valve, drain hole, bonnet, barrel
  66. Hydrant kit contents
    • 65 mm gate valve
    • adjustable hydrant key
    • 65 mm female to 100 mm Storz adaptor
    • 65 mm double female adaptor
    • 65 mm combination key
    • 115-100 mm Steamer port adaptor
  67. Methods of interior firefighting
    • direct
    • indirect
    • combination
  68. Methods of fire attack
    • Offensive
    • defensive
    • marginal
  69. Water application methods
    • solid stream
    • straight stream
    • fog stream
    • broken stream
  70. All fire streams must have
    • pressurized device (pump)
    • hose
    • agent (water)
    • nozzle
  71. Forces that affect fire streams
    • velocity
    • wind
    • gravity
    • friction
  72. Handline capabilities of water flow rates
    • 360 L/min for a 38 mm
    • 750 L/min for a 65 mm
  73. Water extinguishes by:
    • cooling
    • smothering
    • diluting/excluding oxygen
  74. Water valuable as extinguishing agent because:
    • readily available
    • relatively inexpensive
    • can be applied in a variety of ways
    • converting water to steam can aid in extinguishment
    • more heat-absorbing capacity than most other commonly available agents
  75. Factors that increase friction loss
    • rough hose linings
    • damaged hose couplings
    • longer hoselines than necessary
    • more adaptors than necessary
    • sharp bends/kinks in the hose
    • diameter of hose too small for volume of water needed
  76. Hazards of propane
    • highly flammable
    • nontoxic but can cause asphyxiation
    • odourless
    • heavier than air
  77. Search priorities in multiple storey building
    • immediate fire area and rest of fire floor
    • area above fire and rest of floor above fire
    • top floor down to floor above fire
    • floors below fire
  78. Types of searches
    • primary - rapid check for endangered occupants who need assistance
    • secondary - thorough check after incident is under control
  79. Search and rescue equipment
    • PPE
    • flashlight
    • portable radio
    • hoseline
    • forcible entry tools
    • ladders
    • long ropes
    • thermal imaging devices
  80. Types of rope
    • life safety rope
    • utility rope
  81. Advantages of synthetic rope
    • thinner without sacrificing strength
    • greater resistance to rotting/mildew
    • longer-lasting than natural fiber ropes
    • greater strength and added safety
    • less absorbent than natural fiber ropes
    • some are more fire-retardant than natural fiber ropes
  82. Types of rope construction
    twisted, braided, kernmantle
  83. Rope maintenance components
    care, clean, inspect, and store
  84. Rope parts
    • working end - used in forming knots
    • running end - used in hoisting
    • standing part - between running and working ends
  85. Knot terms
    • Bight - reverse in direction to form U shape
    • loop - circle in the rope
    • round turn - circle with parallel ends
  86. Basic fire service knots
    • overhand/safety knot
    • clove hitch
    • half hitch
    • figure 8
    • figure 8 on a bight
    • figure 8 bend
    • figure 8 follow-through
    • prussik/double fisherman
    • water knot
    • square/reef knot
    • timber hitch
    • chimney hitch
    • becket bend
  87. Uses of different loops/bends/hitches
    • Hitches - wrap around an object
    • loops - create a loop in the end of the rope
    • bends - join 2 ropes together
  88. Primary functions of a ladder
    • performing rescues when normal means of egress have been rendered unusable by reasons of fire
    • gain access to upper or lower portions of a structure or to permit firefighters to climb to upper or lower portions of a structure
    • gain vantage point for firefighting
    • secondary means of egress
  89. Basic ladder components
    Butt, tip, rung, beam, truss block, rail, protection plate, heat sensor label, tie rod, roof hooks
  90. Basic extension ladder components
    butt section, fly section, pulley, halyard, stops, pawls, guides, tormentor/staypole
  91. Ladder selection based on height needed
    • First storey roof - 7 m
    • 2nd storey window - 7 m
    • 2nd storey roof - 10 m
    • 3rd storey window - 15 m
    • 3rd storey roof - 15 m
  92. Safety considerations when dealing with ladders
    • wear appropriate PPE
    • use proper hand and foot placement
    • lift with your legs
    • watch over overhead wires/obstructions
    • ensure wall/roof is capable of supporting ladder prior to climbing
    • choose the right ladder for the job
    • choose the right number of people
    • check climbing angle
  93. Benefits of proper ventilation
    • locate trapped occupants faster
    • fresh air to occupants
    • advance hoselines rapidly and safely
    • reduce backdraft and flashover
    • limit fire spread
    • reduce property damage
  94. Reasons for ventilating
    life safety, containment, and property conservation
  95. Types of ventilation
    horizontal and vertical
  96. Methods of ventilation
    • Natural (use air currents and wind)
    • Mechanical (use fans/fog stream)
  97. Measures M
    • open grade level exterior door
    • open grade level stairwell door
    • open fire floor stairwell door
    • open fire unit entry door
    • open fire unit doors/windows
  98. Types of ventilation roof cuts
    rectangular, peak, and trench
  99. General carrying tips for tools
    • Request assistance with heavy tools
    • lift with your legs
    • carry sharp edges away from your body
    • carry long tools pointed down
    • be aware of wires
  100. Types of forcible entry tools
    • striking
    • cutting
    • pushing/pulling
    • prying/spreading
    • hydraulic
    • lock
  101. Door components
    • Door
    • jamb
    • hardware
    • locking mechanism
  102. Types of doors
    • inward swinging
    • outward swinging
    • revolving
    • sliding
    • overhead
  103. Types of windows
    • awning
    • jalousie
    • double hung
    • single hung
    • casement
    • projected (factory)
    • horizontal sliding
  104. Safety when breaking glass
    • Wear PPE with face and eye protection
    • clear area of personnel
    • co-ordinate with fire attack team to prevent flare-up/backdraft
    • clear all shards of glass out of frame
  105. Types of glass construction
    regular, laminated, plate, tempered, double/triple pane
  106. Types of locks
    • cylindrical
    • padlock
    • rim
    • mortise
  107. Systematic forcible entry
    • double check address
    • look for a lockbox
    • evaluate the threat level
    • consider entry with least amount of damage
    • work in a co-ordinated fashion with team members
  108. Building occupancies
    • A - assembly
    • B - institutional
    • C - residential
    • D - business/personal service
    • E - mercantile/commercial
    • F - industrial
  109. Types of loads
    • live - weight of building contents which can be moved (people, furniture, warehouse inventory, etc.)
    • dead - weight of building itself, including foundation, walls, ceiling, floors, etc. anything that is constant and immobile
  110. Other factors dealing with loads
    • impact load - deliver over short period of time with striking/collision effect
    • repeated load - delivered in intermittent fashion (rolling bridge crane)
    • concentrated load - load with small contact area
    • static load - delivered slowly and remains nearly constant (filling of water tank)
    • wind load (forces applied by wind)
  111. How loads are applied
    • axial - applied to the center of the cross section of a structural member and perpendicular to the cross section
    • eccentric - applied perpendicular to the cross section of the cross member but offset from the center, tends to bend the member
    • torsional - applied offset from the center of the cross section and at angle to/in same plane as the section, tends to twist member
  112. Effects of loads on materials
    • Compression - force that tends to force/crush material together
    • Tension - force that tends to pull the material apart
    • Shear - force that tends to cause adjacent planes in a structural member to slide past one another
  113. Key factors that affect building material combustibility
    • combustibility
    • thermal conductivity
    • thermal expansion when heated
    • decrease of strength at elevated temperatures
  114. Five types of building construction
    • Type I:   Fire-resistive
    • Type II:  Noncombustible
    • Type III: Ordinary
    • Type IV: Heavy timber
    • Type V:  Wood frame
  115. Two types of framing and describe each
    • Balloon frame - studs are continuous from basement to roof, floor joists are nailed into the studs to create floors, greater potential for collapse and fire spread is generally more extensive because basement fires can easily extend in the void space up to the attic
    • Platform frame - studs are not continuous, only the height of the individual floor, first floor is constructed as a platform upon which the next floor is built, plate is nailed across the top of the studs from the first floor and this plate forms a fire break in the walls.
  116. Primary types of roof
    Curved, pitched, and flat
  117. Signs of structural weakening of a roof
    • Sagging
    • Cracking noises
    • Extensive fire involvement
    • Fire that has burned for a prolonged period of time
  118. Hazards of a truss
    • Have no fat
    • Failure of one element may cause failure of the entire truss
    • Tying of trusses together to resist windload may result in successive truss failure
    • Carbon monoxide may accumulate in the voids and could cause a backdraft explosion
  119. Types of walls and description of each
    • Load bearing - support part of the weight of the structure as well as the weight of the wall itself
    • Non load bearing - support only their own weight
  120. Possible building collapse indicators
    • Walls that appear to be leaning
    • Deteriorated mortar in masonry walls
    • Loose bricks, stones, or blocks falling from a building
    • Excessive weight of building contents
    • Unusual creaking/cracking noises
    • Indicators of existing structural instability (presence of stars and metal tie rods holding walls up/together)
    • Cracks or separations in walls, floors, ceilings, and roof structures
    • Structural members pulling away from walls
    • Prolonged fire exposure to structural members
    • Fires beneath floors that support heavy machinery or other extreme weight loads
    • Structural members that appear to be distorted
  121. Types of building collapse
    V type, cantilever, pancake, lean-to
  122. Types of high rise construction and descriptions of each
    • Center core - floors are constructed around the center core which contains utilities, elevators, and stairwells.  Each floor layout may be different depending on the occupant, generally constructed of steel and used by businesses.
    • Pigeon hole - constructed of concrete, usually house apartments.  Each floor layout is identical.
  123. Salvage operations include:
    • Expelling smoke
    • Removing heat
    • Controlling water run off
    • Removing water from a building
    • Patching ventilation openings
    • Covering broken doors/windows
    • Securing a building after a fire
  124. Typical salvage equipment
    Mops, squeegees, brooms, mop buckets with wringers, water vacuums, plastic sheets, salvage covers (tarps), scoop shovels, hammers, pike poles, sprinkler plugs, plaster hook, crow bar, axes, extension cords, house adaptors, trash carriers, staples and nails, portable pumps
  125. Uses of a salvage cover
    • Cover furniture, machinery, fixtures, etc.
    • Making catch basins
    • Making chutes
    • Making basins for drafting water (deep catch basins)
  126. Methods of joining tarps together
    • 50 cm folded splice: chute
    • 50 cm rolled splice: catch basin
  127. Methods of routing water from a building
    • Cutting a hole in the floor
    • Boring a hole in the floor
    • Opening drains and vents
    • Lifting toilet bowl off its base
    • Chutes, dikes, and catch basins
  128. Process of overhaul
    • Identify and open any void spaces
    • Expose any burned areas
    • Materials that are still burning must be soaked with water or removed from the building
  129. Where to overhaul
    • Fire-resistive construction: laundry and garbage chutes, pipe chases, utility shafts, doors/dampers that did not close tightly
    • Wood-frame and ordinary construction: open every wall, ceiling, and potential void space
    • Balloon frame construction: fire can spread from basement to attic without showing on other floors, each floor must be carefully overhauled
  130. When overhauling:
    • Look for: discolouration, cracking plaster/peeling paint, smoke, embers, burned areas
    • Listen for: crackling and hissing noises
    • Feel for: heat (using the back of the hand)

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