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What is self aid?
Emergency treatment you apply to yourself
what are some military items you can use as a splint?
- tent poles
What is the quickest way to splint a broken leg?
tie the broken leg securely to the unbroken leg
What is the object of first aid?
- 1. Stop bleeding
- 2. Over come shock
- 3. Relieve Pain
- 4. Prevent infection
What FM covers first aid?
What is first aid?
the first treatment given to casualties before treatment by medical personnel is provided
When would you not remove a casualties clothing to expose a wound?
in a chemical environment or if the clothing is stuck to the wound
What soldiers are most likely to suffer heat injuries?
soldiers not accustomed to the heat, over weight solders, prior heat causalities, dehydrated soldiers from alcohol, diarrhea, or lack of water
how high should an womb be elevated above the heart to control bleeding?
2 to 4 inches
What are the life saving steps ? (ABC's)
- 1. Airway- open airway
- 2. Bleeding- Stop bleeding
- 3. Check for shock-
How should the ends of an improved pressure dressing be tied?
with a non slip knot directly over the womb but not so tight that it has a tourniquet effect
What is manual pressure?
direct pressure applied to help control bleeding
Should a casualty be given water to drink?
no, they should not eat or drink
Why should you dress a bandage asap?
to protect the womb from further contamination and to control breathing
What should you do to indicate that a casualty has received a tourniquet?
mark their forehead with a T and note the time of application
Should you remove a tourniquet?
no, only qualified personnel can
Where is a tourniquet applied?
two inches above wound
how can you prevent athletes foot?
by keeping your feet clean, use foot powder and change socks daily
Name 3 categories of heat injuries
- 1.heat cramps
- 2. heat exhaustion
- 3. heat stroke
what are signs and symptoms of heat cramps?
- 1. cramping in the extremities
- 2. Abdominal cramps
- 3. Excessive sweating
What is the treatment for heat cramps?
- 1. move casualty to a cool, shady area
- 2. lossing clothing
- 3. have them slowly drink one canteen of water
- 4. Seek medical assistance should cramps continue
What are the sign and symptoms of heat exhaustion?
- 1. headache
- 2. Weakness
- 3. dizziness
- 4. cramping
- 5. nausea
- 6. chills
- 7. confusion
- 8. tingling hands or feet
- 9. Excessive sweating with pale, moist, skin
What is the treatment of heat exhaustion?
- 1. move the casualty to a cool place
- 2. loosen clothing
- 3. drink water
- 4. elevate legs
What are signs and symptoms of a heat stroke?
- 1. skin is red, hot and dry
- 2. weakness
- 4. diziness
- 5. cramps
if a casualty is suspected of having a spinal injury which method would you use to open the airway?
jaw thrust technique, because it can be done without extending the neck
What are the two types of fractures?
open and closed
what are signs of an open fracture?
- bones sticking through skin
- you wont be able to check pulse
What are signs of a closed fracture?
- check for pulse
with an open fracture what should you do first?
Stop the bleeding
What is the basic proven principle in splinting fractures?
Splint them where they lie
How tight should a tourniquet be?
it should be tightened until the bright red bleeding has stopped
What are 3 common points for checking the pulse?
- 1. carotid
- 2. femoral
- 3. radial the wrist
what are symptoms of shock?
- clammy skin
- fast breathing
what is the treatment for shock?
- P.E.L.C.R.N (pronounced PELL-CRIN)
- position casualty on back
- elevate legs
- loosen clothing
- notify medical personnel
what is a heat injury?
loss of water and salt, dehydration of the body
how do you stop bleeding?
- apply a field dressing
- maual pressure
- elevate the limb
- apply a pressure pressing
- digital pressure
- apply a tourniquet
What is CPR?
cardiopulmonary resuscitation, used to restore a heart beat
When should you stop trying to restore breathing?
- When a doctor tells you to stop
- when others relieve you
- when you cannot physically continue
- when the casualty starts to breath
What is AIDS?
the end stage of the HIV infection (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)
What are the two types of rescue breathing?
- 1. mouth to mouth
- 2. nose to mouth
when should a casualty not be placed in the shock position?
- head injury
- abdominal wound
- fractured leg
how long is direct manual pressure need to be applied to control breathing?
5 to 10 minutes
what should you do before you leave an unconscious casualty?
turn their head to the side so they dont choke on their vomit
When should a tourniquet be applied to control breathing?
as a last result or when an arm or leg has been severed
What does COLD stand for?
What are the 8 steps to evaluating a casualty?
- head injuries
what is the first indication of frostbite?
skin becomes numb and forms white patches
how do you treat frostbite?
remove clothing from the area warm with body heat and seek medical help
When should an airtight dressing be applied to a sucking chest wound?
as the casualty breathes out
how should you position a casualty with an open abdominal wound?
on his back with knees up to relieve abdominal pressure
what do you do with exposed abdominal organs?
wrap them in a dry and clean material and place them on top of the abdomen.
how do you take the carotid pulse?
on the side of the neck with two fingers
what are the two man carries for transporting casualties?
- two man support carry
- two man arms carry
- four hand seat carry
- two hand seat carry
What are the one man carrying methods?
- fireman carry
- neck drag
- arms carry
- saddle back carry
should you put medical cream on a burn?
what are the four types of burns?
- 1. Thermal
- 2. electrical
- 3. chemical
- 4. laser
what is the primary objective in the treatment of burns?
prevent shock and infection
What are the 3 types of medical evacuation?
- urgent- within 2 hrs
- priority- within 4 hrs
- routine- within 24 hrs
what is the first step in first aid to treating a casualty?
remove casualty from source of burn