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2013-12-07 23:59:10
Bioenergetics meeting metabolic demand energy

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  1. light from __________ is the ultimate source of energy on earth
    the sun
  2. plants process light energy to produce _____
  3. describe the 4 forms of energy:
    • Chemical: molecular level within the body
    • Electrical: Brain, electrical impuls
    • Heat: Energy byproduct
    • Mechaincal: energy used to fule movement
  4. The 3 forms are carbohydrates are:
    • monosacchardies
    • disaccharides
    • polysaccharides
  5. Monosaccharides are simple sugars such as:
    • glucose
    • fructose (fruit sugar)
    • galactose (milk sugar)

    monosaccharides are 6 carbon molecules
  6. the two forms of disaccharides are:
    • maltose: two glucose molecules combind
    • sucrose: (table sugar) a glucose and fructose molecule
  7. 3 important polysaccharides are:
    • starch (grains)
    • cellulose
    • glycogen: form in which animals store carbohydrates; thousdands of glucose molecules bound together
  8. glucose molecules can be combind within the liver or muscle tissue to form glycogen in a process called:
  9. during exercise, glucose molecules can be removed from glycogen in the liver in a process called:
  10. the 2 important fats for metabolism are:
    • fatty acids: have an even # of 4 to 24 carbon atoms bound together in a chain; saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated
    • triglycerides:  glycerol molecule plus 3 fatty acids
  11. a fatty acid containing the maximal # of hydrogen atoms and no double bonds are called:
    • saturated fatty acids
    • 18 carbon fatty acid
  12. a fatty acid that does not contain the maximal # of hydrogen atoms and has at least one double bond between carbon molecules is called:
    unsaturated fatty acids

    monounsaturated fatty acids/polyunsaturated fatty acids contain at lease one and more that one, respectively double bonds b/w carbon molcules, does not contain max # of hydrogen bonds
  13. nine amino acids that must be ingested in the foods that we eat because they cannot be synthesized by the human body are called:
    essential amino acids
  14. more that half of the amino acids, are those that the body can sythesize are called:
    nonessential amino aicds
  15. protein molecules that faciliate a chemical rxn, including metabolic ones, by lowering the energy needed for the rxn to take place are called:

    enzymes do not cause the rxn to take place; just faciliates/increase speed

    factors that affect speed of facilitation: temperature, acidity, need for coenzymes
  16. the substrates fits into the indentations of an enzyme, forming a ___________ which lowers the energy of activation so that the rxn can take place at a faster rate.
    • enzyme-substrate complex
    • (lock and key)

    after the rxn is complete, the procuct of rxn disassoicates from enzyme
  17. rxns in which a substrate is broken apart into two product molecules thus releasing energy is called a:
    catabolic rxn
  18. a rxn in which one product molecule is formed from two substrate molecules, which requires energy are called:
    anabolic rxn
  19. the use of oxygen to metabolize food is called:
    aerobic metabolism

    • all products are readily used or expelled
    • used at rest & during long duration, lower intensity activity
    • most commonly involves carbohydrate & fat (sometimes protein)
  20. the products generated by aerobic metabolism are:
    • energy: used to support bodily fxns
    • CO2 : transported in blood/expired at lungs
    • water: water
  21. producing energy without the use of oxygen is called:
    anaerobic metabolism

    ONLY carbohydrates can be used to produce energy anaerboically

    • major source of energy during high-intensity, short duration activity
  22. the products generated by anaerboic metabolism are:
    • energy
    • CO2
    • lactic acid: increased blood/intramuscular acidity; decreases production of useful energy; diminsihing intensity or speed of activity
  23. the energy molecule with the three major components adenine, ribose, and three phosphates is called:

    • ATP is the energy product of both anaerboic and aerobic energy
  24. ATP can be produced from:
    • adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
    • inorganic phosphate (Pi)
    • and a hydrogen ion (H+)

    • results in energy and 7.3 Kcal of free energy
    • releases energy to a cell and increases acidity when broken down
  25. adenosine triphosphate (ATP) produces energy when it is broken down into adenosine diphosphate and an inorganic phosphate (Pi), called_________
    exergonic: yields energy
  26. ATP can be produced by combining ADP and Pi, but this rxn requires energy, called:
    endergonic: needs energy
  27. describe the 3 characteristics of the ATP- PCr system:
    • energy source for activities requiring much energy per second
    • examples: sprinting, lifting a heavy object
    • can only provide energy for a short time
    • only a small amount of ATP in the cells; must be replenished quickly
  28. describe the 3 enzyme adaptations to exercise of the ATP-PCr system:
    • increase in activity of major enzymes (creatine kinase)
    • faster regeneration of ATP
    • increased performance of short-duration, high power activities
  29. describe the 3  ATP and PCr adaptions to exercise:
    • ATP and PCr concentrations should increase due to short-duration, high-intesnity activity
    • endurance-type training has no effect
    • elevations in content of resting intramuscular ATP and PCr may not be necessary to enhance short-term, high-intensity performace
  30. a series of 10 enzymatic reactions that metabolize glucose are called:
  31. glycolysis occurs in the __________ of muscle cells
  32. what is the result molecule of glycolysis if there is adequate amounts of oxygen available in the cell:
    acetyl- CoA:  enters the mitochdria and participates in aerobic respiration
  33. if enough oxygen is not available, glycolysis can instead result in the production of ___________:
    lactic acid: anaerobic respiration
  34. glycolysis results in ATP production from the breakdown of ____________

    glucose can be obtained from either blood glucose or glycogen
  35. if glucose is used to produce ATP in glycolysis, an _______ is NEEDED in the rxn

    if starting with glucose, _____ ATP's are produced
    • ATP
    • 2
  36. glycolysis starting with _________, spares the cell the use of ATP moleclue that would be needed.

    _____ ATP's are produced
    • glyocgen
    • 3
  37. the 4th rxn in glycolysis splits the 6 carbon chain of glucose into 2 three carbon chains

    the 6th rxn in glycolysis results in one H+ being removed from each 3 carbon chain.

    The H+ produced are accepted by the H+ carrier molecule:
    NAD+: results in NADH
  38. NADH can donate a H+ in which two processes in glycolysis:
    • aerobic metabolism
    • pyruvic acid
  39. if aerboic metabolism cannot accept H+ in glycolysis from NADH, _________ can accept the H+ and become lactic acid
    pyruvic acid
  40. changes in glycolytic enzymes could improve performance in both aerobic and anaerobic activities by increasing:
    ATP availibility from glycolysis
  41. enzymes of glycolysis frequently studied are:
    • glycogen phosphorylase
    • phosphofructokinase (PFK)
    • lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
  42. one way to increase performance in and recovery from any activity in which intramuscular acidity increases is:
    chemical buffering systems
  43. examples of chemical buffers are:
    • bicarbonate
    • phosphate
    • protein
  44. the fxn of the Krebs cycle is to:
    • oxidize (remove hydrogens and electron) from substrates
    • produce ATP
  45. what 3 types of molecules can enter the krebs cycle:
    • carbohydrate
    • fat
    • protein
  46. which two hydrogen carrier molecules transport H+ and electrons to the electron transport chain in the krebs cycle:
    • NAD+
    • FAD
  47. the vast majority of ATP production during aerboic metabolism comes from:
    the transport of H+ and electrons to the electron transport chain

    34 ATP from the ETC
  48. the production of ATP by the electron transport chain is termed:
    oxidation phosphorylation
  49. glycolysis results in pyruvate (3 carbon molecule), which is broken down, forming a two carbon molecule Acetyl-CoA, which can enter the krebs cycle

    Acetyl-CoA is combind with oxaloacetate (4 carbon molecule) resulting in:
    citrate (6 carbon molecule)

    called "cycle" because oxalocetate is used in the 1st rxn, and produced in the last rxn
  50. citrate then goes thur the series of rxns making up the krebs cycle, resulting in the formation of:
    • 2 CO2 molecules
    • 1 ATP
  51. Total energy production from carbohydrate:

    ATP Glycolysis
    ATP Krebs:
    • ATP Glycolysis: 4
    • ATP Krebs: (1  x2)= 2 
  52. Total energy production from carbohydrate:

    NADH Glycolysis:
    NADH Krebs:
    • NADH Glycolysis: 4
    • NADH Krebs: (3 x2)= 6
  53. Total energy production from carbohydrate:

    FADH2 Glycolysis:
    FADH2 Krebs:
    • FADH2 Glycolysis: 0
    • FADH2: (1 x2)= 2
  54. Total energy prouction from carbohydrate:
    40 ATP - 2 (used to start rxn)= 38
  55. a process during which fatty acids are broken down into two-carbon molecules (acetic acid), which can be transformed into acetyl-CoA and enter the Krebs Cycle is called:
    beta oxidation
  56. from a 16 carbon fatty acid, 8 acetyl-CoA can be formed

    For each round of beta oxidation resulting in an acetyl-CoA (7 rounds).. 1 NADH is formed, 1 FADH2 is formed
  57. ATP production from a typical 16 carbon molecule fatty acid is:
    129 ATP
  58. exercise intesnity: triglyceride or carbohydrate metabolism

    at rest, approximately 33% of the needed ATP is derived from ___________ metabolism
  59. exercise intesnity: triglyceride or carbohydrate metabolism

    at rest, approximately 66% of the needed ATP is derived from ___________ metabolism
    fat or triglyceride
  60. As the exercise intensity increases, there is a gradula switch from prodominatly relying upon ____________ for energy production to the use of ___________
    • triglycerides
    • carbohydrates
  61. at maximal exercise intensity, when 100% of the energy needed by the working muscles is provided by ___________ metabolism
  62. list the factors that result in the switch from triglycerides at rest to carbohdyrates at maximum intensity:
    • carbohydrate metabolism produces more energy per liter of oxygen
    • more fast twitch muscle fibers are recruited
    • hormonal changes (increase in epinephrine)
  63. during low-intensity, long duration activity such as jogging for 30 mins +, there is a gradual shift from ___________ to _________ metabolism, even if the same intensity is maintained throughout the session
    • carbohydrate
    • triglyceride
  64. increased fat metabolism triggers "hitting the wall" or:
    depeltion of glycogen stores in liver/intramuscular
  65. as the exercise intensity at which blood lactic acid begins to accumulate above the resting concentration is called:
    lactate thershold

    • untrained: threshold 50-60% max oxygen consumption
    • trained: threshold 65-80% max oxygen consumption
    • as lactate threshold increases, so does enduracne performance
  66. the exercise intesnity at which a specific blood lactic acid concenration occurs:
    onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA)
  67. the term used to describe the oxygen taken in above resting values after exercise is called:
    oxygen debt
  68. the condition in which all the energy needed is provided by aerobic metabolism is called:
  69. performing _____________ recovery, consisting of light to moderate aerobic exercise, decreased blood lactic acid concentrations significantly faster than performing no physical activity during recovery, or ___________ recovery
    • active
    • passive
  70. the procedure of measureing heat production to determine metabolic rate is termed:
    direct calorimetry
  71. using the amount of oxygen utilized, CO2 produced, and their ratio to calculate energy production or metabolic rate is termed:
    indirect calorimetry
  72. metabloic rate determined in the supine positioin, 12 to 18 hrs after a meal, immediately after waking up, in a theromneutral environment is called:
    basal metabolic rate
  73. metabolic rate approx. 4 hrs after a light meal, approx. 30-60 mins of resting is called:
    resting metabolic rate