Vet histology lectures 14 & 15

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Vet histology lectures 14 & 15
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2013-10-02 19:10:50
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Vet histology lectures 14 & 15
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  1. Describe the vasculature in cartiledge?
    None
  2. Is there any nerves or lymph in the cartilage?
    Nop
  3. What are the 2 main cartiledge forming cells?
    Chondroblasts and chondrocytes
  4. Cartilage is composed of cells and ground substance, why can we see any fibers in cartilage?
    Same refractive index as ground substance so blends in
  5. What is cartilage that covers bone where it articulates another bone called?
    Articular cartilage
  6. Why cant we have nerve blood vessels or lymphatics in cartilage, especially articular cartilage?
    Because often high pressure tissue and could damage those structures
  7. Other than articular portions of bone where else do we find cartilage?
    Place that need strong but flexible reinforcement such as the trachea and esophagus
  8. What is the space the chondrocyte sits in called?
    Lacuna
  9. Chondrocytes we would expect to see a large number of what intracellular organelle? Why?
    • RER
    • Producing lots of proteins
  10. Cartilage is composed of what type of collagen? Does this collagen form bundles?
    • 2
    • No only fibrils never fibers or bundles
  11. Why do we often see a halo around chondrocytes in tissue?
    Because when we process the tissue we often shrink the chondrocytes for some reason
  12. the ECM of cartilage is formed of? (2)
    • Type 2 collagen
    • Ground substance
  13.  As cartilage cells get older and bigger they get bigger and deeper within the cartilage. Why do we see a decline in health down there? What adaptation is meant to negate this? Is cartilage still limited?
    • Hard to get nutrients in and waste out because avascular
    • High water content of ground substance
    • Yes it cant get too big or it dies
  14. Agrecans in cartiledge are formed by what binding to what
    proteoglycan to hyaluronic acid
  15. Do we see perichondriuym in articular cartilage? Why?
    • No
    • Too vascular for the pressure and would be ruined
  16. Perichondrium has 2 layers?
    • Inner cellular layer
    • Outer fibrous layer
  17. Chndroblasts originate from what other cell?
    Fibroblasts of the connective tissue
  18. What layer makes the cartilage?
    Perichondrium
  19. What are 3 types of cartilage? Briefly describe each?
    • Hyaline - glassy looking generic cartilage
    • Elastic - has elastic fibers imbedded in it
    • Fibro - Halfway between cartilage and tendon
  20. Where do we see most fibrocartilage?
    At the most stressful points of a tendon
  21. Where do we see hyaline cartilage?
    • Respiratory system
    • i.e. trachea etc
  22. How do we make elastic cartilage? What are its properties? Where do we see it? Can we normally see it?
    • Adding elastic fibers into type 2 collagen
    • elasticity and flexibility
    • Places like epiglottis
    • Not without special staining
  23. Do we find vasculature in the fibrocartilage?
    No not at all
  24. How does fibrocartilage appear?
    As small rows of cartilage cells between tendon spaces
  25. Essentially how is fibrocartilage formed?
    Some fibroblasts decide to turn into cartilage
  26. So all chondroblasts start from? But can they go backwards?
    • Fibroblasts
    • Yes
  27. Describe the development of cartilage?
    • Cells derived from mesenchymal cells
    • Withdraw their processes
    • Secrete amorphous substance and type 2 collagenv(causes them to spread apart)
  28. How do chondrocytes get nutrition?(2) (physically what 2 places does it come from) What happens if the chondrocyte is >3mm inside
    • Through diffusion, cappiularies outside perichondrium, synovial fluid
    • vascular canals form
  29. Where other than deep cartilage do we see vasculkar canals to bring nutrition to tissue?
    In the development of fetal bone and therefore later in bone
  30. is bone vascular or avascular?
    Vascular
  31. Is bone a dynamic or static tissue?
    Dynamic
  32. What is the main cell of the bone?
    Osteoblast
  33. What is the name of the non mineralized matrix of the bone? it contains what?
    • Osteoid
    • Type 1 collagen and proteoglycans
  34. Where osteoblasts nucleus located? What colour under H&E are they? They form the bones?
    • Basally
    • Basophillic (with prominent rER)
    • matrix
  35. What happens to bone with old age or with mineral deficiencies?
    THey get bendy and weak because of nutrient deposition issues
  36. OSteoblasts release 2 kinds of things?
    • Ground substance and collagen fibers are produced
    • Also release secretory vesicles containing alkaloid substance
  37. What happens to the alkaloid vesicles that are released from the osteoblasts ask they get older and older?
    Ca and P are deposited and they become hydroxyappetitie crystals eventually fusing to form the mineralized layer
  38. While osteoblasts create bone osteocytes? What about osteoclasts?
    • Maintain bone
    • Eat and turnover bone
  39. Osteocytes are where?
    Completely surrounded by their own minerilization in the bone
  40. How do osteocytes get nutrition?
    Permeates through small canals called canaliculi because bone is obviuously not permeable
  41. Osteoblasts are single nucleated cells, while osteoclasts are? And do what? and are derived from what?
    • multi nucleated
    • eat and turnover bone
    • monocytes
  42. Does the body leave the bone for long?
    No bone is constantly being turned over
  43. no osteocytes is > than ____ microns from a blood vessel. The cell cytoplasm of the osteocyte can extend into the?
    • 100
    • canaliculi
  44. How do osteoclasts change their shape to efficiently eat away bone?
    They get little indentations into themselves on the surface of the bomne where they are eating, it is hear they release the enzymes to degrade bone, by making this tight packet of space inbetween the bone and the cell it doe snot loose its enzymes friverously and can be more efficient (see picture in lecture 14 page 3 slide 6)
  45. Bone matrix is made of?
    Type 1 collagen and ground substance
  46. Bone can act as a storehouse for what? IT can be mobilized when?
    • Calcium and phosphorous
    • Whenever needed
  47. Calcium and phosphorous are stored in bone in the form of ?
    Hydroxyappetite crystals
  48. The out layer of a long bone that is solid and gives rigidity is reffered to as? What about the inner softer lighter bone? Why is all bone this solid bone all the way through?
    • Compact
    • trabecular (cancellous)
    • Because it would be far too heavy
  49. What are two ways you can prepare bone slides? Why are these so unique?
    • Decalcified bone
    • Ground bone into thin slice
    • Because you cant simply slice bone
  50. What is the name of the system of organization that bone is in?
    Haversian system
  51. The haversian system of bone is based off of what unit that includes the blood vessels?
    The osteon
  52. In the middle of the osteon is the?
    Central (haversion) canal
  53. What surround the central canal of an osteon?
    Concentric or haversian lamellae
  54. What is located between the concentric lamellae? which holds? and spreads out via?
    • The lacuna
    • osteocytes
    • Canilaculi
  55. WHat are the interstitial lamellae?
    Lammalae facing the inside of the bone but not compleeltey surrounding an osteon, almost cut off bu end of compact bone
  56. THe haversion system applies to compact bone or cancellous bone?
    Compact
  57. What surrounds all the osteons on the outside of the bone?
    The external circumferential lamellae
  58. Do we see lacuna in the external circumferential lamellae and the interstitial as well as the concentric?
    Yes
  59. What surrouns the external circumferential lamellae? which is connected to the comnpact bone via? And has 2 layers which are the? And is vascular or avascular?
    • Periosteum
    • perforating fibers
    • cellular layer, and fibrous layer
    • vascular
  60. Blood vessels in the compace bone run longitudinal or transverse?
    Longitudinal
  61. What do we find in the central canal spaces of the trabecular bone?
    Bone marrow
  62. What do we call the actual branches of trabecular bone?
    Trabeculae
  63. Describe the anatomy of a trabeculae starting from outside layer in
    • Endosteum (made up of osteoblasts aligned on outside) (often find osteoclasts eating away here too)
    • Parallel lamellae
    • Inbetween the parallel lamellae is lacunas similar to the compact bone
  64. parallel lamellae in the trabecular bone are also called?
    Interstitial lamellae
  65. IF YOU ARE HAVING ANY TROUBLE WITH MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF BONE THERE IS GREAT  BIG LARGE SLIDES PRINTED OFF ON THE BACK OF LECTURE 14
  66. What type of preparation allows you to see cannaliculi? Can you distinguish cells? Why?
    • Ground preparation
    • No
    • Cause they are all ground up and distorted, can only see spaces between
  67. Periosteum has 2 layers? Which layer is more prominent in young?
    • Inner osteogenic layer
    • Outer fibrous layer
    • Innter osteogenic layer in young
  68. What is the endosteum? It is contrasted to the?
    • Layer of osteoblasts in trabecular bone
    • Periosteum
  69. Name  2difference from cartilage to the bone
    • Bone has
    • Presence of canalicular system
    • Direct vascular supply
  70. Canaliculi travel from where to where and open up where?
    Lacuna to lacuna and open up on bone surface to get into connective tissue close to capillaries
  71. What process does the healing of a fracture resemble?
    Formation of new bone
  72. What are the extremities of a long bone called? What about the more central portion?
    • Epiphysis = extremities
    • Diaphysis = centre
  73. What is immature fetal bone called? Why is it weaker and more bendy?
    • Woven bone
    • Because not near as organized or compact, no osteocytes, so quite weak
  74. What are the 2 ossification methods? Which is most common? Where are both found?
    • Intramembranous - flat bones
    • Endochondrial -  long bone
    • Endochondrial
  75. What is the growth plate? What is its technical name?
    • It is a cartilaginous layer between the epiphysis and diaphysis
    • Epiphysial plate
  76. Describe the formation of a flat bone in 4 steps, also describe the name of this process
    • Intramembranous ossification
    • normal connective tissue
    • turn into osteoblasts
    • Calcification forming, mesenchyme condenses to form periosteum
    • Calcification points around osteoblasts start to fuse and make a structure
  77. What is the best way to kill a cartilage?
    mineralize its matrix and starve it to death
  78. When you mineralize the matrix around cartilage cells what does it leave behind? What fills this?
    • Holes and spaces where cells were
    • Osteoblasts and vasculature
  79. Describe the dfifference between the first bone formed and more refined bone
    • Refinement is the key word here
    • 1 bone formed Is essentially old cartilage remanant mineralized,
    • future bones are replaced by osteoclasts and have proper bone structures and mineralization
  80. How many centers of ossification do we normally have in a long bone? What is it?
    • 3
    • Generally we consider it to be the point where ossification begins within the bone
  81. Where is the primary center of ossification? What about secondary?
    • Diaphysis
    • epiphysis
  82. Describe how we go from mesenchyme to bone
    • mesenchyme
    • hyaline cartilage (all chondrocytes)
    • Bone
    • Bone formation begins in the shaft
  83. So how does the vasculature and cells actually get within the bone?
     Osteoblasts form collar around diaphysis, when the cartilage dies the osteoblasts and vessels move in
  84. Which center of ossification is the first to be invaded
    primary
  85. Cartilage lining joint point of long bone
    articular cartilage
  86. Does the epyphysial plate grow towards the shaft or the end
    Toward the shaft,Constantly growing that direction, makes sense because growing on a curve would be strange
  87. What is the name of the area within the epiphyseal plate where the bone is actually being formed?
    Metaphysis
  88. Why do we see irregular shapes of the cartilage in the bone at the extremity end of the epiphyseal plate
    So that the bone and the cartilage attach together well
  89. Describe the steps of the cartilage as it goes downwards towards the diaphysis and the changes in job it goes through (6)
    • Resting
    • Proliferation
    • Hypertrophy
    • die
    • invasion
    • deposite and build up strength
  90. What is the prolioferation zone called? What about growing zone? Why would these cells what to grow so big?
    • Zona proliferation
    • zona hypertrophy
    • to make as big of cavities as possible
  91. 1st model of bone what will come of it?
    Eaten away at a later date and relayed more efficiently and more organized
  92. In the transition from cartilage to bone at the epiphyseal plate all the cartilage cells must die, how do they die?
    All extra cellular space between them is calcified thus shutting down the diffusion of nutrients
  93. So during formation of bone when dead cells are absorbed they leave behind
    canlliculi
  94. What closes the epiphyseal plate? What gender shuts down bone growth first?
    • Testosterone and estrogen, or steroid hormones
    • Females
  95. What leads the remodeling?
    Cutting edge of osteoclasts
  96. What follows the cutting edge of the osteoclasts when they drill into bone for remodeling
    Osteoblasts and blood vessels
  97. What remodels faster young or old bone?
    Yound
  98. What ends up happening to the pattern of osteons seen by the 3rd generation
    ends up overlapping old osteons and lookinging like an old pattern of unfisnished osteons
  99. Going farther back from the cutting edge of the osteoclasts what happens to the cavity?
    Gets thinner and thinner as osteoblasts fill it up
  100. In the remodeling of spongey bone how does it differ?
    An entire leaflet of osteolasts moves at once followed by a whole leaflest of osteoblasts
  101. Describe the 4 steps of fracture repair
    • Blood vessels fill the fracture with a hematoma which turns into a big clot
    • clot is overgrown by periosteum, makes cartilage
    • cartilage is invaded by first bone, making a hard callus (not as hard as strong bone) then the bone is drilled out in remodelling and becomes bone again
  102. What is the latin term for joint?
    Synarthrosis
  103. Describe syndesmosis, Synchondrosis, Synostosis and symphysis
    All of them are joints of a sort

    • Syndesmosis = glued together by dense connective tissue like young skull
    • Synchondrosis = cartilage attaching the joint together such as ribs to sternum
    • Synostosis = Eventually when joint truly fuses together with bone, like an adult skull
    • Symphysis = attached via connective tissue, cartilage to cartilage ie. vertebra
  104. What is a diarthroses?
    A joint with a capsule or cavity
  105. What happens with the articular cartilage when you get closer and closer to the surface of the articular cartilage?
    The cells get smaller and smaller
  106. The compression near the surface of the articular cartilage in a diarthrosis  changes what structure
    Thje fibers of the articular cartilage vear off to the side
  107. Why is it rare to have to epithelium within the diarthrotic capsules?
    Cause it is one of the only capsules to not be lined with epithelium
  108. What is the inside of a diarthrotic capsule lined with?
    • Blood vessels
    • Fibroblasts - secreting fluid
    • Macrophages - cleaning fluid

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