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cilia found in bronchus does what
trap pathogens and move them out
what is the epiglottis
- the gatekeeper
- open to breath
- closed to eat or drink
what is the lining of the lung
- inner visceral
- parietal visceral
the pleural space has what that allows the linings to move over each other
what are the 3 steps of breathing?
______ + ______ = ventilation
what is ventilation
moves air in and out of the lungs through negative pressure changes
What happens during inspiration?
Diaphragm and external intercostal muscle contract to increase the thorax size for inspiration
What happens during expiration?
the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax
what are some factors affecting ventilation?
- clear airways
- Intact CNS & Respiratory Center (Medulla & Pons)
- Intact Thoracic Cavity (capable of expansion & contraction)
- Pulmonary Compliance & recoil (intrapleural pressure)
what can affect the CNS & Respiratory Center?
What can keep the thoracic cavity from working properly?
- Muscular Dystrophy
- Spinal Cord Injury
what can affect the Pulmonary Compliance & Recoil
- Intrapleural Pressure (creates suction to hold visceral & parietal cavity together)
- Intrpleural Fluid (adheres pleura together)
- Intrapulmonary pressure (pressure in the lungs)
amount of air in and out with each breath
- anterior neck muscle and abdomen muscles
- used during strenuous breathing
portion of the lung collapses
the alveoli is what really collapses
without ______ alveoli is stuck closed
Lipoprotein surrounds alveoli
what is the direction of blood through the heart
- Pulmonary Artery
- Lungs (alveoli to be oxygenated)
- Pulmonary Veins
What Is Diffusion?
- Alveolar Gas Exchange
- Diffusion of O2 from alveoli to pulmonary blood vessels
Diffuse is movement of gas from an area of _______ pressure to an area of _______ pressure.
what is Partial Pressure
- the pressure exerted by each individual gas in a mixture according to it concentration in the mixture
- PO2, PaO2, PCO2
When O2 in alveoli is high, what happens
O2 diffuses to pulmonary arteries to be sent throughout the tissues
When PCO2 is high in pulmonary arteries is high, what happens??
CO2 diffuses in alveoli to be expired