Clinical Pathology I - Week 4
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what are the two types of anemia?
- 1. regenerative of non-regenerative
- 2. chronic or acute
what are the three major causes of blood loss anemia?
- 1. chronic bleeding (over 72 hours)
- 2. blood sucking parasites
- 3. acute blood loss
what are the five major categories that attribute to chronic bleeding?
- 1. gastrointestinal lesions
- 2. neoplasms outside GI tract
- 3. deficiencies of clotting factors
- 4. hemophilia
- 5. DIC
what are the two types of gastrointestinal lesions?
how does neoplasms cause slow blood loss?
abdominal tumor (benign or cancer) growth that causes slight tearing thereby inducing the seepage of blood into the digestive tract
what are examples of gastrointestinal lesions?
abrasion or tumor
what is the most common cause for abdominal abrasions?
which clotting factor deficiencies can cause chronic bleeding?
prothrombin or Vitamin K
what is the cause of Vitamin K deficiency?
what is the cause of prothrombin deficiency?
what is hemophilia?
lack of clotting ability
which species is common for hemophilia?
what is the cause of hemophilia?
inherited sex-linked disorder
which sex is more likely to have hemophilia?
why do females not seem to contract hemophilia?
females are carriers; both parents must have the recessive gene on the "X" chromosome to pass on to the offspring
what is a phenotype?
the outwardly display of genetics - example: brown hair, blue eyes, etc.
what is a genotype?
what the genes actually are regardless of outward appearance - example: brown eyed female may actually carry the blue eyed recessive gene
what is DIC?
disseminated intravascular coagulation
what is a major cause of DIC?
what is thrombocytopenia?
lack of available platelets; platelets are being used in the body and are not available for circulation
what are the two functions of thrombocytes?
- 1. carry clotting factors
- 2. accumulate and act like sand bags to plug up tears in the blood vessels
what is the common name for thrombocytes?
what are three causes for DIC?
- 1. heart worms or the treatment for heartworms
- 2. heat stroke
- 3. orthopedic surgery
how do you determine DIC?
what is the formula for calculating an average platelet count?
sum of number of platelets in 10 fields divided by 10 times 20,000
what is the average number of platelets per field?
what is the normal platelet count for canine?
150,000 - 600,000
what is the normal platelet count for feline?
200,000 - 800,000
how can heartworms cause DIC?
during surgery, anesthesia puts heartworms to sleep and are subsequently released from the heart and can cause an embolism
what is an example of induced DIC?
female cat comes in for OVH but has been in a recent fight; the platelets are concentrating on the wounds making sure to stop the bleeding; after the OVH another "wound" is present but the platelets are already preoccupied and there are insufficient platelets in circulation to congregate around the surgery site
what are the three types of blood sucking parasites?
- 1. internal
- 2. external
- 3. coccidia
what are examples of internal parasites that can cause anemia?
hookworms & some flukes
what are examples of external parasites that can cause anemia?
fleas, ticks, biting lice
what is the scientific name for coccidia?
how do you diagnose coccidia?
what are the two major sources for acute bleeding?
surgery and trauma
what are some examples of trauma causing acute bleeding?
- 1. HBC/HBT
- 2. fights
- 3. too close to equipment (lawn mower, weed eater, etc.)
- 4. fences
what causes bleeding from every orifice in cows?
bracken fern toxicity
how does bracken fern toxicity cause bleeding?
contains a strong anticoagulant
what releases dicoumoral?
sweet clover when trampled or freezes
which species is affect by sweet clover poisoning?
what is dicurmin?
which species is usually affected by dicurmin?
What would you like to do?
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