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- physical contact, molecule to molecule
- pan needs to touch heat source
- metals are great conductors
- insulators are poor conductors
- Involves liquids and gases (fluids)
- Expands and rises, then cools and condenses and fall down
- Ex. Sea breeze convection currents
- Heat air molecules, they rise
- electromagnetic ways
- wooden stove, sunburn, bon fire
- lights, microwaves
- higher frequency shorter wavelength
- infrared ray, sun, toasters, coals
Heating methods when cooking a cake.
- Convention; heats the air molecules they rise heat the cake, condense and fall and get heated up again. Pan is heated from the heat source.
- Conduction; hot air molecules touching each other.
- Radiation; radiating heat from the bottom with heat the sides of the pan and cook the cake.
How microwaves generate heat?
- Polar (water) molecules absorb the microwaves which causes them to vibrate getting warmer and thus heating other molecules next to them.
- Heat is generated inside by the polar molecules.
Relationship between power, cooking time, and amount of food in a microwave oven?
- Cooking time depends on power and oven contents.
- Microwaves penetrate about 1inch thick and heat better when things are in circular/egg shaped containers.
Quality of microwave cooking?
- heat generated inside
- no crust
- no browning/flavors
- crust can be tough
- moisture can escape, water is driven out during the cooling process
Quality of Conventional oven cooking?
- Heat from outside in, surface is very hot.
- crust forms on baked goods and meat.
- crust can trap moisture and gases
- surface browns, producing flavors
- crust can be crisp
- Basic structure of a single glucose, fructose, or galactose molecule.
- 6 member ring with 6 carbon.
2 sugars double
Process of Sugar Crystalization
Ways to break bonds between sugars.
Sugar concentration and boiling point of a solution.