Logic Exam 1

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marinamar
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Logic Exam 1
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2013-10-02 00:05:12
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logic usd exam fallacies
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Logic Exam 1 fallacies USD
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  1. What declarative sentences are used to assert.
    Proposition
  2. A proposition making only one assertion.
    Simple Proposition
  3. A proposition containing two or more simple
    propositions
    Compound Propositions
  4. A process of linking propositions by
    affirming one proposition on the basis of one or more other propositions.
    Inference
  5. A structured group of propositions reflecting an
    inference.
    Arguments
  6. A proposition used in an argument to support the
    truth of some other proposition.
    Premise
  7. The proposition in an argument whose
    truth is supported by the other propositions.
    Conclusion
  8. Asserts that the conclusion necessarily follows
    from the premises.
    Deductive
  9. Asserts that the premises make the conclusion
    probable or more likely.
    Inductive
  10. Truth of the premises guarantees the
    truth of the conclusion.
    Valid
  11. The truth of the premises does not
    support the truth of the conclusion.
    Invalid
  12. Argument is valid and the premises are true.
    Sound
  13. Argument that is not valid or the premises are not true
    Not Sound
  14. Truth of the premises make the conclusion more
    likely.
    Strong
  15. Truth of the premises does not make the conclusion more likely.
    Weak
  16. An argument that is strong with true
    premises
    Cogent
  17. An argument that is weak or has a false premise.
    Not Cogent
  18. Any error in reasoning.
    Fallacy
  19. Errors that arise in the construction of deductive arguments.
    Formal Fallacies
  20. These fallacies are all characterized
    by the fact that the premises are unconnected to and thus can't support the
    conclusion.
    Fallacies of Relevance
  21. A fallacy in which one is encouraged to believe a proposition because a large number of people also believe it.
    Appeal to the populace
  22. A broad class of fallacies that rely
    on stirring up the emotions of the listener, rather than providing reasoned
    justifications.
    Appeal to Emotion
  23. A fallacy in which a distracting element is
    introduced to obscure an opponent's position.
    Red Herring
  24. A fallacy in which one intentionally
    misrepresents an opponent's position. Generally takes the form of assuming that
    one's opponent has adopted the most extreme position possible.
    Straw Man
  25. An argument that relies on attacks on
    the character of a person making an argument.
    Ad Hominem
  26. A direct attack on character of the person making the
    argument.
    Abusive Ad Hominem
  27. An attack on the circumstances of the person making an
    argument.
    Circumstantial Ad Hominem
  28. An argument that relies on a threat of force.
    Appeal to force
  29. An argument in which the premises support a
    different conclusion than the one offered.
    -Also called non-sequiturs
    Missing the point
  30. In these fallacies the premises do
    relate to the conclusion, but they aren't strong enough to support the conclusions drawn. These are all weak arguments.
    Fallacies of Defective Induction
  31. When a proposition is held to be true because it has not been proven false; or a
    proposition is held to be false because it hasn't been proven true.
    Argument from Ignorance
  32. A fallacy in which the conclusion is
    based on the authority of an individual who has no legitimate claim to
    expertise in the matter under consideration.
    Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
  33. Something that is not really a cause is treated as a cause. An error that arises from a
    misunderstanding of causal relations.
    False Cause
  34. A fallacy in which one event is assumed
    to have been caused by a second event because one event came before the other.
    Mistaking a temporal relation for a causal relation. Assuming that because A
    happened and then B happened, A caused B.
    Post Hoc
  35. A fallacy in which change in a particular direction is assumed to lead to further disastrous change in the same direction.
    Slippery Slope
  36. A fallacy in which one moves carelessly from individual cases to a generalization.
    Hasty Generalization
  37. Fallacies in which the conclusion depends on a tacit assumption that is in error. The fallacy arises from making unwarranted assumptions in the premises.
    Fallacies of Presumption
  38. A fallacy in which a generalization is wrongly applied to a specific case. 
    Basically a situation where someone ignores an obvious exception to a rule.
    It is the opposite of a hasty generalization.
    Accident
  39. A fallacy in which a question is asked in such a way that presupposes the truth of some proposition buried in the question.
    Complex Question
  40. A fallacy in which the conclusion is
    stated or assumed in one of the premises.
    Begging the Question
  41. Fallacies caused by a shift or confusion of meanings within an argument.
    Fallacies of Ambiguity
  42. A fallacy in which a word or phrase is
    used with different meanings in different parts of an argument. 
    We have a word with two or more meanings and one shifts from one meaning to another over the course of an argument.
    Equivocation
  43. A fallacy in which the grammar is ambiguous, and that ambiguity is exploited in
    the argument or claim.
    Amphiboly
  44. A fallacy in which a premise is
    employed to mean different things based on changes in emphasis given to words
    within the premise.
    Accent
  45. A fallacy in which an inference is mistakenly drawn about a whole based on
    attributes of the parts.
    Composition
  46. A fallacy in which we draw an
    inference about the parts based on the whole.
    Division

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