Poli Sci

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Author:
ahernandez
ID:
238303
Filename:
Poli Sci
Updated:
2013-10-02 02:01:48
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Environmental Challenges
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Environmental challenges
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  1. Geoengineering
    area of engineering that focuses on technical solutions to solve climate change challenges such as installing mirrors in outer space to reflect sunlight away from earth or creating artificial clouds to reflect sunlight away from lithosphere
  2. Radiative forcing
    change in avg net radiation at top of troposphere caused by change in concentration of a greenhouse gas or change in overall climate system
  3. Administrative procedure act
    US federal law enacted June 11, 1946 that governs how federal administrative agencies establish and propose regulations
  4. Gaia Hypothesis
    hypothesis by British scientist James Loveluck that states the earth is tough, not fragile and will respond ruthlessly to whatever humans do to it through forces of nature. if humans warm climate it will respond with heat waves droughts stating that human are responsible for natural disasters
  5. 1977 Clean Air Acts Ammendments
    Amendments added to Clean Air Act in 1977. Primarily concerned provisions for Prevention of Significant Deterioration of air quality in areas attaining National Ambient Air Quality Standards as well as areas of non-attainment. Both established major permit review requirements to ensure attainment and maintenance of NAAQS
  6. Dimmock v Secretary of State
    Case heard in Sept-Oct 2007 in high court of England/Wales on whether gov should provide Al Gores An Inconvenient Truth to state schools to be showed in classrooms as educational material
  7. Singular non-linear events
    Events of short duration that are related to onsets of different kinds of explosive instabilities that recur at regular intervals or randomly
  8. Inversion basin
    uplift of sedimentary basin as a result of crustal shortening. Normally excludes uplift caused my mantle plumes can also refer to individual faults where an extension fault is reactivated in opposite direction of original movement
  9. Carbon dioxide
    main greenhouse gas caused that causes global warming. Human activities have greatly increased amounts of this gas in the atmosphere over the past century
  10. Los Angeles Department of Water and Power
    Largest municipal utility in US serving 4mil in LA. Founded in 1902 to supply water to residents and businesses and began delivering electricity in 1917. Involved in many controversies such as St Francis Dam failure
  11. Mono Lake Committee
    founded 1978 to stop diversion of water to LA and preserve Mono Lake. Has been largely successful in preserving Mono Lake through litigation, legislation, cooperation and public support.
  12. Acid Rain Program
    Market based initiative by EPA tor educe overall levels of sulfur dioxide and and nitrogen oxides which cause acid rain. Program mainly targets coal burning power plants allowing them to buy and sell emission permits
  13. Environmental Protection Agency
    Agency of US fed gov created for purpose of protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress
  14. State Implementation Plan
    federally approved enforceable plan in which states identify how they will attain or maintain National Ambient Air quality Standards described in Clean Air Act.
  15. Non Attainment Areas
    Areas considered to have worse air quality than the National Ambient air Quality Standards state in Clean Air Act. These areas must have and implement a plan to achieve attainment or risk losing federal financial assistance. Areas can be attained in one pollutant but attained in others.
  16. Thermohaline Circulation
    large scale density driven circulation in the ocean caused by temperature differences and salinity. AKA ocean conveyor. Reason why Europe has pleasant weather despite high altitude.
  17. California State Water Program
    Worlds largest publicly built and operated water and power development system. Designed and operated by California Department of Water Resources. Provide drinking water to 23mil people. Also the largest single consumer of power in state with a net 5.1mil MWh
  18. Cap and Trade
    Buy and sell pollutant rights from other polluters. Creates efficiency for gaining compliance but costs of administering emissions market can be less efficient that a tax.
  19. Acid Rain
    Term referring to mixed wet/dry deposition from atmosphere containing higher than normal amounts of nitric and sulfuric acids
  20. South Coast Air Quality Management District
    formed in 1976 and is air pollution agency responsible for regulating stationary sources of air pollution for LA SB RC and OC. Areas have severe smog problem to SCAQMD is leader in efforts to reduce emissions.
  21. RECLAIM
    Regional Clean Air Initiatives Market  designed to achieve air pollution reductions to protect public health. Initiated 1993 and is market incentive program that allows facilities to determine most cost effective approach to reduce emissions NOx Sox
  22. Nitrous Oxide
    Produced by both human and natural sources. Human sources are agriculture, manure treatments, sewage treatment, and combustion of fossil fuels.
  23. California Air Resources Board
    Clean air agency with goal to attain and maintain healthy air quality protecting the public from from toxic air contaminants and providing innovative approaches for pollution regualation compliance
  24. Tragedy of Commons
    Written by Garret Hardin in 1968 that addresses problem in resource use in commons. Argues that unless there is mutual coercion, commons will be overexploited.
  25. Carbon Dictator
    Term coined by Australian environmentalist Tim Flannery. Failure to act on climate change will lead to a global carbon dictatorship across all industries and nations
  26. 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments
    Increased authority and responsibility of fed. New programs authorized to control acid deposition for the issuance of stationary source permits. Modified attainment/maintenance of National Ambient Air Quality Standards.
  27. Clean Air Act 1970
    Creates major shift in feds control of pollution. Authorized development of regulations to limit emission from both industrial and mobile sources. Air pollution has significantly decreased since this was enacted.
  28. Pollution Hotspot
    Location where emissions may expose people to elevated risks of of adverse health effects such as cancer.
  29. Pollution tax
    incentive for polluters to cut pollution as much as possible because more reductions is more money saved. Polluters cost effective analysis to determine if they should cut pollution.

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