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What are the distinguishing features of sponges (Calcarea & Silica)?
- -Lack true tissues,organs and symetry
- -Spicules (skeletal elements)
What are the distinguishing features of Cnidaria? Give an example of an animal from each of the 3 classes.
- -Radial symmetry
- -Gastrovascular cavity
- -Cnidocytes: specialized stinging cells
- Hydrozoa- hydroids
Contrast animal body plans of Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida.
- Platyhelminthes = acoelomates
- Nematoda = psuedocoelomates
- Annelida = coelomates
What are the distinguishing features of Mollusca? Give an example of an animal from each of the 4 major classes
- -Muscular foot
- -Visceral mass
Gastropoda = snail
Bivalves = clams
Cephalopods = octopus
What are the distinguishing features of Echinodermata? Give an example of an animal from each of the 5 major classes.
- -Endoskeleton of hard calcareous plates
- -Secondary radial symmetry
- - Water vascualr system with tube feet
What are the distinguishing features of Arthropoda? What are the distinguishing features of the 4 major subphylum and give an example of an animal from each.
- - Jointed appendages
- -Segmented coelomates
Cheliceriforms:claw like feeding appendages (spiders,scorpions)
Myriapoda: segmented with legs, each segment has two pairs of legs (Centipede)
Crustacea: calcified exoskeleton, two pairs of antennae (lobster)
Hexapoda: three pairs of legs, most with wings, have head, thorax,abdomen (grasshopper)
Contrast complete and incomplete metamorphosis in Arthropoda.
- I. Complete
- - Pass through a larval stage, then enter an inactive state called pupa, or chrysalis, and finally emerge as adults. This process is called "complete" metamorphosis.
- II. incomplete
- -Juvenile forms closely resemble adults', but are smaller and lack adult features such as wings and genitalia. This process is known as "partial" or "incomplete" metamorphosis
What are the 3 subphylum of the Chordata? Give distinguishing characteristics of each.
- - Urochordates(tunicates)
- - Cephalochordates(lancelets)
- - Vertebrates(with backbones)
Note the major themes in derived characteristics within the living vertebrates (as in Fig. 23.36).
-Anteriorskull with a large brain
-Rigid internal skeleton supported by the -vertebral column
-Internal organs suspended in a coelom
-Well developed circulatory system with a ventral heart
How did tetrapods likely evolve? What are the distinguishing characters of the major phylum of tetrapods?
The fins of early aquatic sarcopterygians evolved into limbs & feet of tetrapods
- - Fourlimbs & feetwith digits
- - Ears for detectingairborne sounds
How are birds adapted to flight? Why are birds considered reptiles?
- - Feathers/wings
- - Endothermic
- - Hollow bones
- Considered reptiles due them being amniotes and related to archosaurs.
What is an amniotic egg?
- A calcium based water impermeable shell that allows the embryo inside to develop in a contained aqueous environment.
- Stores food
- Allows for passage of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
-Slows evaporation of fluid inside.
Describe the 3 types of mammals, noting distinguishing features.
- -Marsupials Therians
- -Eutherians Therians
Describe the main characteristics of primates.
- Large brain
- Short jaws
- Forward looking eyes close together on face for depth perception
- Well developed parental care & complex social behavior
-Fully opposable thumb