Motivation - Chapter 7

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Motivation - Chapter 7
2013-10-02 11:17:57
psyc 385 motivation emotion

Social needs
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  1. social needs
    • originate from preferences gained through experience, socialization, and development
    • acquired and learned (via incentive values) part of our personality
    • emotional and behavioural potentials that are activated by particular situational incentives
  2. quasi-needs
    • situationally induced wants and desires that are deficiency-oriented
    • not full-blown needs, but still affect cognition, emotion, and behaviour
    • disappear as soon as they are satisfied
    • depends more on the environment than the individual
  3. need
    • any condition within the person that is essential and necessary for life, growth and well-being
    • nurtured needs allow us to live, grow, and thrive
    • thwarted needs damage us, and we regress and suffer
  4. achievement
    • the desire to do well relative to a standard of excellence
    • challenges to competence that end with either objective success or failure
    • competitions with tasks, self, and others
    • ~ related values need to be internalized
  5. Atkinson's model
    • classical view of achievement motivation
    • inherent struggle of approach versus avoidance
  6. Tendency to Approach Success (Atkinson)
    • behaviour (Ts) is based on level of achievement need (Ms), task-specific probability of success (Ps), and incentive value (Is = 1 - Ps)
    • Ts = Ms x Ps x Is
  7. Tendency to Avoid Failure (Atkinson)
    • depends against the loss of self-esteem, social respect, and the fear of embarrassment
    • behaviour (Taf) is based on the motive to avoid failure (Maf), the probability of failure (Pf = 1 - Ps), and the negative incentive value for failure (If = 1- Pf)
    • Taf = Maf x Pf x If
  8. Tendency to Achieve (Atkinson)
    • overall behaviour is determined by relative levels of desire for success and fear of failure
    • Ta = Ts - Taf = (Ms x Ps x Is) - (Maf x Pf x If)
  9. future achievement orientation (Atkinson)
    • an individual's psychological distance from a long-term achievement goal
    • farther away goals have less approach-avoidance weight than close goals
  10. Dynamics-of-Action Model
    • behaviour occurs within a stream of ongoing behaviour determined by instigation, inhibition, and consummation
    • achievement behaviour is dynamic and changes over time
    • latency to begin an achievement task and persistence depends on motive strength
    • switching to a nonachievement task occurs with rising consumption
  11. Instigation
    • causes a rise in approach tendencies and occurs by confronting environmental stimuli associated with past reward
    • equivalent of Ts
  12. Inhibition
    • causes a rise in avoidance tendencies and occurs by confronting environmental stimuli associated with past punishment
    • equivalent of Taf
  13. Consummation
    performing an activity brings about its own cessation, therefore achievement behaviour is dynamic and changes over time
  14. Moderately Difficult Tasks
    • high-need achievers outperform low-need achievers but do not out perform for easy or difficult tasks
    • optimal challenges for competence and feedback
  15. High-need achievers
    • seek diagnostic ability information
    • seek opportunities to test their skills
    • value competence for its own sake
    • attracted to self-evaluation opportunities
    • enjoy demonstrating or providing their abilities
  16. Competition
    • promotes positive emotion, approach behaviour, and improved performance in high-need achievers
    • promotes negative emotion, avoidance behaviours, and debilitated performance in low-need achievers
  17. Entrepreneurship
    • behavioural patterns of entrepreneurship often displayed by high-need achievers
    • moderate risks, assumed responsibility for success/failure, rapid performance feedback (pride, competence, improvement)
  18. performance goal
    • prove competence, display high ability, outperform others, succeed with little apparent effort
    • associated with relatively negative and unproductive ways of cognition, emotion, and behaviour
    • prefer easy task, superficial learning, extrinsically motivated, won't ask for help
    • quit more easily
  19. mastery goal
    • develop competence, make progress, improve the self, overcome difficulties with effort and persistence
    • associated with positive and productive cognition, emotion, and behaviour
    • prefer challenging goals, learn conceptually, intrinsically motivated, ask for help
    • able to work harder, persist longer, and perform better
  20. promoting mastery
    • success = improvement
    • value effort
    • communicate that satisfaction comes from hard work
    • focus on how students learn
    • errors are natural and welcome
    • assessment based on improvement and progress
  21. avoidance motivation
    • people with these types of goals underperform, quit quickly, lose interest, and feel dissatisfied because of perceived lack of progress
    • lower measures of self-esteem, personal control, vitality, life satisfaction, and well-being
    • predisposed if neurotic and/or have poor life skills
  22. Entity Theorists
    • people who believe their personal characteristics are fixed and enduring
    • usually choose performance goals (want to appear smart)
    • high effort and negative feedback means low ability
    • avoid difficult tasks
  23. Incremental Theorists
    • people who believe their qualities are malleable and changeable
    • with instruction, guidance, effort, learning and xp you can improve self
    • usually pick mastery goals
    • effort is a tool to help take advantage of skills
    • negative feedback means try harder next time
    • take on difficult tasks that are learning opportunities
  24. affiliation
    • social need for approval coming from a fear of interpersonal rejection
    • deficiency-oriented arising from deprivation of social interaction
    • having other people around while anxious is comforting; relief
  25. intimacy
    • concern for the quality of one's social involvement
    • growth-oriented coming from interpersonal caring
  26. power
    • a social need/desire to make the physical and social world conform to one's personal image or plan
    • need for dominance, reputation, status, or position
    • detrimental to group functioning and relationships; can be abusive
    • seek influential positions, prestige possessions
    • increases approach tendencies and decreases inhibitory tendencies
  27. impact
    allow individuals to establish power
  28. control
    allows individuals to maintain power
  29. influence
    allows individuals to expand or restore power
  30. leadership motive pattern
    • high need for power, low need for affiliation/intimacy, high inhibition
    • effective leaders and managers