Neurology: Control of Movement

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Author:
juliemarie
ID:
238377
Filename:
Neurology: Control of Movement
Updated:
2013-10-08 21:50:10
Tags:
Motor Neuro SLP
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Description:
Brief description of control of motor movement
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  1. Motor pathways include 2 principal Neurons:
    • Lower Motor Neuron (LMN) 
    • Upper Motor Neuron (UMN)
  2. The LMN's cell body resides in the _________ or ____________ and it's axon project to _________ or __________. It is also known as __________________
    • brainstem
    • spinal cord
    • skeletal muscle
    • smooth muscle
    • alpha motor neurons
  3. The UMN's cell body resides at _______________ (multiple words) and it's axon projects to the ______
    • higher level in the CNS (cortex)
    • LMNs
  4. The skeletal muscles and parts of the nervous system that control them:
    Somatic Motor System
  5. Many Structures in the CNS are associated with movement, these are the: 

    All of these structures work in concert to allow for movement
    • cortex
    • basal ganglion
    • thalamus
    • brainstem
    • cerebellum
    • spinal cord
  6. The _____ get input from the UMN but muscle contraction is only directly commanded by _____, so they are referred to as the _____________
    • LMN
    • final common pathway
  7. The ventral horn contains ______, these exit via the ______ root and then join with the _______ root fibers and combines to form the spinal nerve. There are ____ spinal nerve pairs.
    • LMN
    • ventral
    • dorsal
    • 31
  8. LMNs are _________ neurons
    Multipolar
  9. The _____ together with its target ___________ constitute a ___________. Small motor units control ________ movements and large motor units control __________ movements
    • LMN
    • muscle fibers
    • motor unit
    • precise (fine)
    • gross
  10. Muscle fibers are surrounded by the __________ and the smaller units of muscle fibers, ________, are surrounded by the _____________________. This is linked to the sarcolemma via the ______________ and contains _________ ions.
    • sarcolemma 
    • myofibrils
    • sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • transverse tubule (t tubule)
    • calcium
  11. The neuromuscular junction is the place in which the ___ synapses to the ______. The postsynaptic element in the muscle is called the ________, which is extensively ______.
    • LMN
    • muscle
    • motor endplate
    • folded
  12. The action potential runs down the ____ axon, it reaches the terminal, ____ channels open, the vesicles dock, neurotransmitters are released (the only NT used in the neuromuscular junction is _________) The NT binds to receptors in the motor endplate.
    • LMN
    • Calcium
    • Acetycholine
  13. Acetycholine is released into cleft, and allows ____ to flood the cell, causing the cell to depolarize, and changes the ________ potential, and causes an action potential to occur on the _________.
    • NA+
    • endplate
    • sarcolemma
  14. The action potential on the sarcolemma causes ____ to be released from the _______________, causing __________. when the ___________ reabsorbs the CAthen _________ occurs.
    • CA+
    • sarcoplasmic reticulum 
    • contraction
    • sarcolplasmic reticulum 
    • relaxation
  15. The LMN has 3 main sources of input:
    • 1. UMN in the cortex (initiates/controls voluntary movement)
    • 2. muscle spindles: a special sensory apparatus (feedback about muscle length)
    • 3. Interneurons in the SC (part of circuitry that generates reflexes)
  16. What is a reflex?
    • Local motor response to local sensation
    • all of these are mediated by the SC, independent of the brain
  17. What are the two types of reflex synapses?
    • Monosynaptic (straight onto LMN)
    • Disynaptic (synapses first onto interneuron, then the interneuron synapses onto LMN)
  18. What is affected in dysarthria?
    Reflexes (either hypo or hyper)
  19. reflexes represent basic __________ ________ mechanisms to sensory stimulation that is painful or potentially damaging. Most behaviors are a complex mix of __________ and _________ influences. Reflexes are important to _______
    • involuntary defense
    • voluntary 
    • involuntary
    • speech

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