Null hypotheses are those dealing with a potential alternative explanation to the conclusion, but an alternative thought to be untenable. I.E., hypotheses requiring proof that they are not true.
the study of patterns in nature, and the mechanisms by which these patterns have evolved.
Fitness is a relative concept, and it is a property of individuals.
Genetic material is what is selected because only heritable characters are able to be passed along to new generations.
• You don't have to produce your own offspring to pass along your genes.
• Your own kids have, on average, 0.5 of your genes, but your nephews and nieces have 0.25. Thus, if you can make your nieces more likely to be represented in the next generation, you become more fit through inclusive fitness.
The study of proximate processes of ecological systems. The study of how ecological systems work. Functional ecology can be practiced at the level of whole ecosystems (Systems Ecology), or individual organisms (Physiological Ecology, or some aspects of Behavioral Ecology).
Founder Effect - New populations started by a small propagule
Phenotype is what an organism is
• body size
• skin color
• performance characters
Selection produces adaptations which are the superior variants within the population.
Organisms that have superior adaptations are usually more Fit.
Selection ==> Adaptations (in individuals more abundant in future populations. These individuals are more Fit)
Applied Ecology - is basically concerned with human oriented problems. For example, problems related to deliberate or inadvertent human perturbations of natural systems; management of confined (e.g., parks) or domesticated (crops) ecosystems.
Specialists on single organisms or populations within one species are called autecologists. Those specializing in the mechanisms of single organisms to the abiotic environment are often called physiological ecologists or behavioral ecologists (but also population biologists tend to work with one species at a time.
Popperian Approach - Eliminate alternative hypotheses (null hypotheses).
species of endotherms, more heavily pigmented forms tend to be found in more humid environments, e.g. near the equator.
endotherms from colder climates usually have shorter limbs (or appendages) than the equivalent animals from warmer climates.
broadly distributed taxonomic clade, populations and species of larger size are found in colder environments, and species of smaller size are found in warmer regions.
Thus, 38% of this characteristic (clutch size) is an adaptation or the result of natural selection. So, to the extent of its ability, 38% of the explained variance might be said to be optimally designed.
Nevertheless, many biologists are typically concerned about those (generally slow) processes of evolution that deal with adaptation to the biotic and abiotic environment.