Chapter 1: Human Growth and Development

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sc174534
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Chapter 1: Human Growth and Development
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2013-10-02 23:27:42
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psychology developmental
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chapter 1 in human growth and development. Introduction material to psychology and developmental studies
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  1. recurring issues
    • nature v nurture
    • continuity v discontinuity
    • universal v context specific development
  2. biopsychosocial framework
    biological, psychological, sociocultural, and lifecycle forces
  3. biological forces
    genetic, health related
  4. psychological forces
    cognitive/perceptual, emotional, personality
  5. sociocultural forces
    societal, cultural, ethnic, interpersonal
  6. lifecycle forces
    identical events, different age groups
  7. what is a theory
    an organized set of ideas that is designed to explain development
  8. what are the major theoretical perspectives on human development
    psychodynamic, learning, cognitive, ecological &systems, life span
  9. psychodynamic: Erikson's psychosocial theory
    • basic trust v mistrust (0-1 year)
    • autonomy v shame & doubt (1-3 years)
    • initiative v guilt (3-6 years)
    • industry v inferiority (6- adolescence)
    • identity v. identity confusion (adolescence)
    • intimacy v. isolation (young adult)
    • generativity v stagnation (middle adult)
    • integrity v despair (late life)
  10. learning theory
    concentrates on how learning influences behavior, emphasizes experience, consequences, watching others
  11. watson's behaviorism
    learning determines our behavior
  12. bf skinner's operant conditioning
    consequences of behavior determine whether it will be repeated
  13. social learning theory
    observational learning or imitation (more likely when model is awesome and rewarded)
  14. albert bandura's social cognitive theory
    cognition emphasizes thinking, self-efficacy effects likelihood of engaging in behavior
  15. cognitive-developmental theory
    stresses development of thought processes (piaget, vygotsky, information-processing theory)
  16. piaget's stages
    • sensorimotor (0-2y)
    • preoperational (2-7 y)
    • concrete oprational (7- early adolescence)
    • formal operational (adolescence and beyond)
  17. sensorimotor stage
    • 0-2 years
    • child interacts with world through sensation and movement
    • develops ability to hold a mental representation of objects
  18. preoperational stage
    • 2-7 years
    • develop ability to use symbols
    • egocentric
  19. concrete operational thought
    • 7 years to adolescence
    • here and now logic
    • cannot accurately consider the hypothetical
  20. formal operational thought
    • adolescence and beyond
    • abstract thought
    • deals with hypothetical concepts
  21. information-processing theory
    mental hardware, mental software
  22. mental hardware
    psychological structures, such as memory capacity
  23. mental software
    cognitive abilities that process information and help us to interact with the world
  24. vygotsky's theory
    • emphasizes sociocultural influences on child development
    • apprenticeship
  25. ecological and systems approach
    • all aspects of human development are interconnected
    • environment, family, political, social, etc
  26. urie beonfenbrenner's theory
    • microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem
    • all interact with each other
  27. lawton & nahemow's competence-environmental press theory
    adaptation depend on competencies, environmental pressure and interactions of these
  28. life-span perspective
    no one factor adequately explains it, all must be considered
  29. selective optimization with compensation
    describes choices that determine and regulate development and aging
  30. life-course perspective
    examines how different generations experience and adjust to biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces within the historical time period of their lives
  31. matilda riley's life-span perspective
    need to view entire life-span, social, environmental, and historical aspects to understand a person's development
  32. four features of the life-span approach
    multidirectionality, plasticity, historical context, multiple causation
  33. multidirectionality (life-span approach)
    different areas of development grow and decline at the same time
  34. plasticity (life span)
    skills and abilities can be improved or developed through the life span
  35. historical context (life span)
    historical time periods must be considered in examining development
  36. multiple causation (life span)
    biological, psychological, sociocultural, and lifecycle changes must be considered
  37. baltes: selective optimization with compensation (soc)
    elective selection, loss based selection, compensation
  38. elective selection
    making choices to reduce involvement with one goal in order to concentrate on another
  39. loss-based selection
    reducing involvement because of lack of resources or abilities
  40. compensation
    finding alternate ways of meeting goals due to loss of ability of diminished skills
  41. life-course perspective
    • personal life events interact with historical influences
    • individual issues integrate with family issues
  42. naturalistic observation
    real-life observation (in field)
  43. structured observation
    simulated situation in order to observe target behavior
  44. sampling behavior with tasks
    using some given task to determine some other behavior (i.e. pictures of faces expressing emotion shown to determine ability of subject to discern emotions)
  45. self-reports
    subjects are asked to provide information on target behavior
  46. physiological measures
    using bodily responses, such as heartbeat or salivation, to determine what subject's responses are
  47. reliability
    consistently measure
  48. validity
    measure the correct variable
  49. population
    broad group of people in which researchers may be interested
  50. sample
    a subset of people chosen to well represent a population
  51. correlational studies
    measure relationship between variables
  52. experimental studies
    studies possible "cause and effect" between two variables by manipulating one then measuring other
  53. longitudinal studies
    observes or tests one group of individuals at each of several time periods
  54. cross-sectional studies
    observes or tests groups of different ages at the same period in time
  55. sequential studies
    combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal designs
  56. genotype
    complete set of genes one has inherited
  57. phenotype
    combination of genotype and environmental influences resulting in the actual expression of traits
  58. heritability coefficient
    denote how much of a trait is due to heredity
  59. Epigenesis
    genes and environment interact reflects the continuous interplay between all levels of the environment and genes
  60. three periods of prenatal development
    zygote, embryo, fetus
  61. zygote
    • weeks 1-2
    • fertilized egg until implanted in uterine wall
  62. embryo
    • week 3-8
    • ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
  63. fetus
    9 week - birth
  64. important marks in fetus period
    • week 4- neural tube forms
    • week 9-ovaries or testes
    • week 12- circulatory system functions
    • week 16- movement felt by mother
    • week 20- hair and greasy body film (vernix)
    • week 22-28 age of viability
    • week 22 and beyond - senses active
  65. cephalocaudal principle
    growth from head to spine
  66. proximodistal principle
    growth from areas central to peripheral

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