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- The number and variety of life forms, including species, found within a specific region as well as the number and variety of ecosystems within and beyond that region.
- E.g. A herd of deer, a fox and two grizzly bears live on a protected forest.
- To guard legally from harm a species that is listed as endangered, threatened, or of special concern.
- E.g. The black rhino, Hawksbill turtle, and the Bengal tiger are protected species
- A place where there is an exceptionally large number of species in a relatively small area.
- E.g Rainforests, coral reefs
- All the populations of different species that interact in a specific area ecosystem.
- E.g. A rainforest has many different species like frogs, insects and gorrilas
- Species that are so abundant that they have the biggest biomass of any community member.
- E.g. The American Chestnut Tree was a dominant species
- A species that can greatly affect population numbers and the health of an ecosystem.
- E.g. Otters are a keystone species because they control the urchin species. If you removed the otters, the urchins population would explode and eat all the kelp, leaving no place for spawning fish to lay their eggs.
- The breeding of rare or endangered wildlife in controlled settings to increase the population size.
- E.g. The Toronto Zoo breeds the black footed ferret and releases them back into the wild.
- A species that causes such dramatic changes to landscapes that it creates a new ecosystem.
- E.g. A beaver is an ecosystem engineer because the beavers dam a flowing river making it become a pond which becomes a home for many insects and other animals.
- The series that causes such dramatic changes to landscapes that it creates new ecosystem.
- E.g. A beavers dam changes the are from forest, to flooded forest, to a sunny pond, and finally to a beaver pond which will become an abandoned meadow.
- The destruction of habitats, which usually results from human activities.
- The practice of clearing forests for logging or other human uses, and never replacing them.
- E.g. clearing trees to create room for farmland or houses
- A species that accidentally or deliberately introduced into a new location.
- E.g. Round Goby found in Great Lakes
- A species that can take over the habitat of native species.
- E.g. Zebra Mussels can take over the habitat of many native mussels.
- The use or extraction of a resource until it is depleted.
- E.g. Over fishing, over hunting, over harvesting
- The death of all the individuals of a species.
- E.g. Some extinct species are the dodo bird and the golden toad.
- The current accelerated rate of extinctions.
- The renewal of degraded or destroyed ecosystems through active human intervention.
- E.g. Restoring old mining sites to habitable ecosystems for different species.
- The regrowth of a forest, either through natural processes or through the planting of seeds or trees in an area where a forest was cut down.
- The use of a species to control the population growth or spread of an undesirable species.
- E.g. The use of the European fly to get rid of the gypsy moth.
- The use of living organisms to clean up contaminated areas naturally.
- Bacteria is used some oil spill sites to help clean up some of the spill.
- The use of organisms to add essential nutrients to depleted soils.
- E.g. Bean plants and clovers add nutrients into the soil.