thin, cylinder-like structure with five regions that extend from its attachment to the brain downward, including the cervical cord, thoracic cord, lumbar cord, sacral cord, and coccygeal region.
a pair of sulci, which forms the boundaries of ridges in the cerebral cortex.
fissure that separates the lobes of the cerebral cortex.
the part of the central nervous system situated between the forebrain and spinal cord consisting of the medulla, pons, and midbrain.
refers to different parts of a given region associated with distinct parts of the body, both functionally and anatomically.
somatotopic organization of sensory and motor regions of the cerebral cortex in which the cells of origin functionally associated with certain parts of the body are associated to other parts of the brain
most caudal aspect of the cerebral cortex.the primary visual receiving area is situated on the medial surface.
cavity found throughout much of each cerebral hemisphere of the brain; consists of an anterior horn, a posterior horn, and an inferior horn.
major component of the basal ganglia along with the caudate nucleus and putamen.
major component of the basal ganglia, along with the caudate nucleus and globus pallidus.
The region of the forebrain that lies below the fornix and consists of two parts; the thalamus and the hypothalamus
ventral aspect of the midbrain containing principally corticospinal, corticobulbar, and corticopontine tracts.
sheet-like processes extending from the meningeal layer of the dura which prevent displacement of the brain when the head moves.
large aggregations of arachnoid villi
a small space around a blood vessel
cistern that extends from the caudal end of the spinal cord to the second sacral vertebra
Aqueduct of Sylvius
(cerebral aqueduct) channel present in the midbrain that allows cerebrospinal fluid to flow from the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle.
small tufts of arachnoidal tissue that act as one-way valves, allowing flow of cerebrospinal fluid into the sinuses but not in the reverse direction.
prevents passage of large molecules from blood into the extracellular space between the neurons and neuroglia due to the close apposition of the endothelial cell membranes (tight junctions).
layer of dura mater that adheres to the inner surface of the skull bone and is highly vascular and innervated
the innermost layer of the meninges, which lies closest to the brain
channels for the passage of blood; created by separation of the periosteal and meningeal layers of the cranial dura
clear fluid present in ventricles of the central nervous system and secreted from the choroid plexus.
fine strands of connective tissue that arise from the arachnoid, span the subarachnoid space, and then connect with the pia
Internal Carotid Arteries
arteries arising at the carotid bifurcation that enter the cranium via the carotid canal in the petrous bone.
Anterior cerebral Artery
supplies blood to the medial aspect of the cerebral hemisphere, including parts of the frontal and parietal lobes, and the postcentral and precentral gyri.
formed by the union of two vertebral arteries at the caudal border of the pons and passes along in the midline on the ventral surface of brainstem
arises from the basilar artery and supply portions of the pons and ventrolateral pons.
Superior Sagittal Sinus
lies along the superior border of the falx cerebri and empties into the confluence of sinuses.
Great Cerebral Vein of Galen
a short vein formed by the union of two internal cerebral veins at the level of the splenium of corpus callosum. which then empties into the confluence of sinuses.