Neuroscience 1

Card Set Information

Neuroscience 1
2013-10-02 21:28:14

Neuroscience Exam 1
Show Answers:

  1. Spinal Cord
    thin, cylinder-like structure with five regions that extend from its attachment to the brain downward, including the cervical cord, thoracic cord, lumbar cord, sacral cord, and coccygeal region.
  2. Gyrus (Gyri)
    a pair of sulci, which forms the boundaries of ridges in the cerebral cortex.
  3. Sulcus (Sulci)
    fissure that separates the lobes of the cerebral cortex.
  4. Brain Stem
    the part of the central nervous system situated between the forebrain and spinal cord consisting of the medulla, pons, and midbrain.
  5. Somatotopic
    • refers to different parts of a given region associated with distinct parts of the body, both functionally and anatomically.
  6. Homunculus
    somatotopic organization of sensory and motor regions of the cerebral cortex in which the cells of origin functionally associated with certain parts of the body are associated to other parts of the brain
  7. Occipital Lobe
    • most caudal aspect of the cerebral cortex.the primary visual receiving area is situated on the medial surface.
  8. Lateral Ventricle
    • cavity found throughout much of each cerebral hemisphere of the brain; consists of an anterior horn, a posterior horn, and an inferior horn.
  9. Globus Pallidus
    • major component of the basal ganglia along with the caudate nucleus and putamen.
  10. Putamen
    • major component of the basal ganglia, along with the caudate nucleus and globus pallidus.
  11. Diencephalon
    • The region of the forebrain that lies below the fornix and consists of two parts; the thalamus and the hypothalamus
  12. Crus Cerebri
    • ventral aspect of the midbrain containing principally corticospinal, corticobulbar, and corticopontine tracts.
  13. Septa
    • sheet-like processes extending from the meningeal layer of the dura which prevent displacement of the brain when the head moves.
  14. Arachnoid Granulations
    • large aggregations of arachnoid villi
  15. Perivascular Space
    • a small space around a blood vessel
  16. Lumbar Cistern
    • cistern that extends from the caudal end of the spinal cord to the second sacral vertebra
  17. Aqueduct of Sylvius
    • (cerebral aqueduct) channel present in the midbrain that allows cerebrospinal fluid to flow from the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle.
  18. Arachnoid Villi
    • small tufts of arachnoidal tissue that act as one-way valves, allowing flow of cerebrospinal fluid into the sinuses but not in the reverse direction.
  19. Blood-Brain Barrier
    • prevents passage of large molecules from blood into the extracellular space between the neurons and neuroglia due to the close apposition of the endothelial cell membranes (tight junctions).
  20. Periosteal Layer
    • layer of dura mater that adheres to the inner surface of the skull bone and is highly vascular and innervated
  21. Pia Mater
    • the innermost layer of the meninges, which lies closest to the brain
  22. Dural Sinuses
    • channels for the passage of blood; created by separation of the periosteal and meningeal layers of the cranial dura
  23. Cerebrospinal Fluid
    • clear fluid present in ventricles of the central nervous system and secreted from the choroid plexus.
  24. Arachnoid Trabeculae
    • fine strands of connective tissue that arise from the arachnoid, span the subarachnoid space, and then connect with the pia
  25. Internal Carotid Arteries
    • arteries arising at the carotid bifurcation that enter the cranium via the carotid canal in the petrous bone.
  26. Anterior cerebral Artery
    • supplies blood to the medial aspect of the cerebral hemisphere, including parts of the frontal and parietal lobes, and the postcentral and precentral gyri.
  27. Basilar Artery
    • formed by the union of two vertebral arteries at the caudal border of the pons and passes along in the midline on the ventral surface of brainstem
  28. Pontinine Artery
    • arises from the basilar artery and supply portions of the pons and ventrolateral pons.
  29. Superior Sagittal Sinus
    • lies along the superior border of the falx cerebri and empties into the confluence of sinuses.
  30. Great Cerebral Vein of Galen
    • a short vein formed by the union of two internal cerebral veins at the level of the splenium of corpus callosum. which then empties into the confluence of sinuses.