If you are immunoincompetent what sort of problems will you have?
system is incompetent or under responsive
If you have immunohyperresponse issue, what sort of problems will you have?
WBC's involved in innate immunity
Active Acquired Immunity
results from invasion of the body by a foreign object and development of antibodies.
With each invasion the body responds quicker
Passive Acquired Immunity
results from person receiving antibodies to an antigen by an injection or from the mom across the placenta.
Type I Hypersensitivity
Anaphylaxis....mediated by IgE
this is any sort of an allergic response
But it can be a severe and quick response to a specific allergen....bronchial constriction
Atopic Type I Hypersensitivities
Sensitive to environmental allergens
Allergic Rhinitis/hay fever
Type II Hypersensitivities
Involve IgG and IgM
Cytotoxic and Cytolytic Reaction
Describe Cytotoxic and Cytolytic Type II Hypersensitivity
Involves erythrocytes, platelets and leukocytes
Seen when patient receives ABO incompatible blood from a donor causing agglutination (clumping)
Rh Imcompatability too
Type III Hypersensitivity
Involve IgG and IgM
Associated with Auto-Immune Disorders
tissue damage secondary to antigen-antibody complex
Where do you typically see Type III Hypersensitivity Reactions occur? (Immune-Complex Reaction)
Examples of Type III diseases
Type IV Hypersensitivity Reaction
Delayed Hypersensitivity Reaction
Reaction that occurs 24-48 hrs after contact
When T lymphocytes attack antigens or release cytokines that attract macrophages and release enzymes that cause tissue destruction
Examples of Type IV Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions
Poison Ivy, Poison Oak
Antigen responsible for Type I Anaphylaxis Hypersensitivity
Exogenous pollen, food, drugs, dust
Antigen responsible for Type II Cytotoxic Rxn
Cell surface of RBC, basement membrane
Antigen Responsible for Type III Immune-complex Hypersensitivity
Extracellular, fungal, viral, bacterial
Local Anaphylactic Response
cause a localized cutaneous response, a pale wheal containing endematous fluid surrounded with a erythemous flare (mosquito bite)
Systemic Anaphylactic Response
mediators are released systemically causing:
weak, rapid pulse
**occurs within minutes and can be life threatening
swollen eyelids, lips, tongue larynx, hand, feet.
Starts at the face and spreads
Assessment for Type I Allergic Hypersensitivities
Patient health history-family history
Past and present allergies-Id them and get info about clinical manifestations
Physical exam of skin manifestations
Diagnostic studies for Type I Allergic Hypersensitivities
CBC with differential (Increase of eosinophils)
Serology (ag and ab in blood)
Sputum, nasal and bronchial secretions (eosinophils)
What test is good to detect food and drug allergies?
Collaborative Care for Type I Allergy Hypersensitivity
Reduce exposure to allergens
Desensitize thru immunotherapy if needed
If a person has anaphylaxis...what do I do?
Maintain patent airway: oxygen or intubation
Prevention of spread of allergen by a tourniquet (bee sting or bite)
Administer epinephrine, solumedrol and Benadryl
Epinephrine does what for anaphylaxis
causes vasoconstriction for increase of BP
and dilates bronchioles to keep airway open
What does Solumedrol do for anaphylaxis?
decreases inflammation causing vasodilation for bronchioles to open
Cardiovascular response to anaphylaxis
Respiratory response to anaphylaxis
Skin response to anaphylaxis
What do you teach a person who has had anaphylaxis reaction?
Avoid allergens that cause systemic anaphylaxis
Antibodies involved with Type II Cytotoxic and Cytolytic reactions....specific
IgM-primary response to ABO blood antigen
IgG-secondary immune response
causing complement lysis and macrophages in the tissues
What does Type II Hypersensitivity lead to?
cant differentiate self from non self proteins which leads to development of autoantibodies and auto-sensitized T cells causing tissue damage based on the self-antigen involved.
the removal of plastma containing components causing the disease. The plasma is replaced with normal saline or albumin. Circulating antibodies and antigen-antibody complexes known to cause autoimmune disorders are removed as well as inflammatory mediators
Systemic Type III Auto-Immune Hypersensitivity
Scleroderma (hardening of skin)
Organ Specific Type III Auto Immune Hypersensitivity