AGR 173.01 Exam 1

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  1. How to determine a male in cattle
    • Precence of sheath, scrotum 
    • Young males have a "bump" on underline
  2. How to determine a female in cattle
    • Heifers and cows have flatter underline
    • Udder is sometimes visible
  3. Determining males and females in pigs
    • Sows and gilts have visible vulva and more pronounced teats
    • Mature boars have scrotum 
    • Barrows and Boars have sheath 
    • Males also have teats
  4. Determining males and females in sheep
    • Mature rams have developed scrotum 
    • Sheared whethers have visible sheath 
    • Sheared ewes do not
  5. Biosecurity
    A set of management practices that prevent infectious diseases from being carried into a herd
  6. What are the 4 areas of biosecurity
    • Isolation/Quarantine
    • Testing
    • Vaccination 
    • Sanitation
  7. Isolation/Quarantine
    • Incoming animals held in isolation until health status is determined (usually 3 weeks)
    • Works well for short incubation period diseases 
    • Isolated animals should not share same air space, food, or water as established herd
  8. Isolation
    • Separate sick from healthy
    • Hospital pens
  9. Testing
    • Especially for imported animals (breeding stock)
    • Testing can establish disease free status 
    • Purchase semen from disease free herds only
  10. Vaccination
    • Are intended to safety expose animal to weakened infections agent so that immune system is prepared for future attack 
    • Contains killed or weakened infectious agent 
    • Animal reacts to vaccine by making protective substances called anibodies
  11. Sanitation
    • All visitors should wear clean boots and coveralls 
    • Disinfect boots between barns/rooms 
    • Prevent fecal contamination of feed supplies by dogs, cats, birds, rodents, and wildlife 
    • Separate equipment for manure and feed handling
  12. Health
    • Not merely the absence of disease s
    • State of optimal physical, mental, and social well being 
    • linked to welfare
  13. Health and Welfare
    • Stressed animals grow slower 
    • Stressed animals are more susceptible to pathogens 
    • Diseased stock may be rejected or docked at market
  14. Optimal health balance
    • Preventing injury 
    • Avoiding disease 
    • treating symptoms animal welfare
    • economics of production 
    • Individual with group industry
  15. Pathogens
    • disease causing micro-organism
    • Bacteria viruses and others
  16. Avoiding Pathogens
    • Eliminate from herd if present
    • Avoid altogether if absent 
    • Isolate and test incoming animals 
    • Control access of fomites
  17. Fomite
    • Objects or materials that are likely to carry pathogens 
    • People, boots, clothes, equipment, vehicles, pets, birds, wildlife
  18. Sanitation
    • Regular removal of manure from pens 
    • Clean and disinfect pens between groups
    • Clean and disinfect boots between rooms, barns
    • Shower-in-shower-out
  19. Cleaning livestock facilities
    • High pressure, hot water
    • Soup is often effective
    • Foaming agent will decrease time and total water use
    • Rooms and equipment must be dry before adding new livestock
  20. All-in, All-out
    • Isolate groups of animals that are managed similarly
    • Avoid maxing age groups and pigs between pens
    • Ideally pen dividers would be solid 
    • Industry standard today 
    • Requires coordination and planning 
    • 7-10% improvement in daily gain and feed conversion
  21. Multi-site production
    • Variation of all-in, all-out
    • Geographically isolate different age groups
    • gestation/farrowing, nursing, and finishing
    • Reduces risk of spread of airborne (and boot borne) pathogens between buildings
  22. Keys to maintaining pathogens
    • Clean facilities - remove pathogen's environment 
    • Avoid contact - dirty boots, nose to nose, air exchange
    • Isolate sick and treat
  23. Birth weight of cattle
    80-120 lbs
  24. Weaning weight of cattle
    500-600 lbs
  25. Market weight of cattle
  26. Weight of mature female in cattle
    1400-1800 lbs
  27. Weight of Mature male in cattle
  28. Birth weight of Pigs
    2-3 lbs
  29. Weaning weight of pigs
  30. market weight of pigs
  31. Weight of mature female pigs
  32. Weight of mature male pigs
  33. Birth weight of sheep
  34. weaning weight of sheep
  35. Market weight of sheep
  36. weight of mature female sheep
  37. weight of mature male sheep
  38. Age at weaning in cattle
    5-6 months
  39. Age at market in cattle
    10-16 months
  40. Age at first breeding in cattle
    12-14 months
  41. At at weaning for pigs
    21-28 days
  42. Age at market in pigs
    5.5-6.5 months
  43. Age at first breeding in pigs
    180-240 days
  44. Age at weaning for sheep
    2-4 months
  45. Age at market for sheep
    6-8 months
  46. Age at first breeding for sheep
    9-10 months
  47. Gestation length for cattle
    281 days
  48. Gestation length for pigs
    114 days
  49. Gestation length for sheep
    150 days
  50. Birth events/ year for cattle
  51. Birth events/ year for pigs
    2.1-2.3 litters
  52. Birth events/ year for sheep
  53. Offspring/birth event for cattle
  54. Offspring/birth event for pigs
  55. Offspring/birth event for sheep
  56. Offspring per year for cattle
  57. Offspring per year for pigs
  58. Offspring per year for sheep
  59. Name for mature male in cattle
  60. Name for mature male in Swine
  61. Name for mature male in Sheep
  62. Name for mature male in horses
  63. Name for mature male in dogs
  64. Name for mature male in cats
  65. Name for mature females in cattle
  66. Name for mature females in Swine
  67. Name for mature females in sheep
  68. Name for mature females in horses
  69. Name for mature females in dogs
  70. Name for mature females in cats
  71. Name for young females in cattle
  72. Name for young females in swine
  73. Name for young females in sheep
    Ewe Lamb
  74. Name for young females in Horses
  75. Name for young females in dogs
    Puppy bitch
  76. Name for young males in cattle
    Bullock or Bull calf
  77. Name for young males in swine
  78. Name for young males in sheep
    ram lamb
  79. Name for young males in horses
  80. Name for young males in dogs
    Puppy Dog
  81. Name for newborns in cattle
  82. Name for newborns in swine
  83. Name for newborns in sheep
  84. Name for newborns in horses
  85. Name for newborns in dogs
  86. Name for newborns in cats
  87. Name of castrated male in cattle
  88. Name of castrated male in swine
  89. Name of castrated male in sheep
  90. Name of castrated male in horses
  91. Name of castrated male in dogs
  92. Name of castrated male in cats
  93. Group name of cattle
  94. Group name of swine
    Herd or Drove
  95. Group name of sheep
  96. Group name of horses
    Band or Herd
  97. Group name of dogs
  98. Group name of Cats
  99. Ear notching in Pigs
    • Right Ear: used for litter mark, and all pigs in the same litter must have the same ear notches. Sections 1, 3, 81, 9, and 27 
    • Left Ear: Used for notches to show individual pig number in the litter. Each pig will have different notches in this ear. Sections 1, 3 and 9
  100. Types of Dairy Cattle
    • Aryshire 
    • Brown-swiss
    • Guernsey
    • Holstein
    • Jersey
    • Milking shorthorn
  101. Lactation
    • Producing milk - The normal secretion of the mammary glands
    • Occurs following birth event
    • Dairy cows selected for extended lactation
  102. Dairy cow life cycle
    • Born 
    • 2 months group housed, forage and grain 
    • 1st pregnancy 
    • 1st calf
    • 10 months lactation (re-breed after 2 months)
    • 2 months rest
    • 2nd calf
  103. Dairy cow Life cycle: Born
    Isolated for 2 months, fed milk replacer, forage, little grain
  104. Age at 1st pregnancy for dairy cattle
    14 months
  105. Age at first calf for dairy cattle
    24 months
  106. Age second calf is born at for dairy cattle
  107. Annual Milk Production
    • Holsteins produce high volume 
    • Jerseys produce high value
  108. Stanchion barns
    • Cattle housed and milked in same location 
    • Milk moved via pipeline
    • Most new dairy barns are not built this way
  109. Large Dairy's built after 2000
    • Cattle housed in free stall barn 
    • Cattle move to milking parlor 
    • Milking parlor has raised floor to make milking easier
  110. Types of milking facilities
    • Stanchion barns
    • Free stall barns
    • Elevated milking parlor
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AGR 173.01 Exam 1
2013-10-03 04:24:47
Farm Animals

Farm animal lab
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