Child Psychology Exam 2
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. What would you like to do?
How is prematurity defined?
- Before 37 weeks
- Birthweight less than 5.5 lbs
What is extremely low birth weight?
What is Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR)?
- Small for gestational age – below 10th percentile
- greatest health risks
Reasons for IUGR?
- Problems with placenta
- Problems with fetus
6 stages of newborn sleep & wake behavioral states
- quiet sleep
- active sleep
- quiet alert
- active alert
What is REM sleep?
- Rapid Eye Movement
- Includes muscle jerk, irregular breathing, and heart-rate activity
What is NREM sleep?
- Fewer movements
- Regular heart-rate and breathing
Behavioral risks of SIDS
- Sleep on belly
- Sleep on soft surface or with soft objects
Benefits of breastfeeding for the baby
- Colostrum antibodies to protect against infections
- Lower rates of diarrhea, respiratory infections, and ear infections
Benefits of breastfeeding for the mother
- Faster recovery of uterus
- Faster weight recovery
- Reduced risk of ovarian and breast cancer
- Delay in next ovulation
During differentiation, the brain is formed using what pattern?
At 4 weeks after conception, the embryo folds over to form what?
Within first 10 weeks, _____ have begun to develop and migrate to different locations
What are neurons?
Specialized cells that process information and allow communication within the nervous system
What is Synaptogenesis?
formation of synapses between neurons in the nervous system
What is Myelination?
Speeds transmission of information
8 newborn reflexes
- Moro Reflex
- Palmar Grasp
- Plantar Grasp
- Rooting Reflex
- Stepping Reflex
- Tonic Neck Reflex
2 types of motor development
What is cognition?
What is perception?
organizing, coordinating, and interpreting information received through senses
What did John Locke believe?
all infant learning came from trial and error
4 research methods for studying perception
- Preferential Looking Paradigm
- Operant Conditioning
What is preferential looking?
Which of two stimuli does the infant prefer to look at
What is scanning?
- Infra-red beam shone onto infant's cornea and reflection recorded by a video camera
- Can calculate position of infant's fixation
What is habituation?
tendency to reduce response to a stimulus that is presented repeatedly
What is dishabituation?
recovery or increase in response when new stimulus replaces familiar one
What is habituation-dishabituation?
Present one stimulus until infant habituates to it, then replace it with a novel one. If infant shows dishabituation this implies ability to discriminate
What is operant conditioning?
Infant is taught to respond in a certain way
What is Intermodal Perception?
- Putting it all together
- Combining or integrating sensory info across modalities
Jean Piaget believed in child as _____ thinker
What is the Constructivist View?
People construct knowledge and understanding of the world by using what they know and understand to interpret new experiences
Piaget’s Mechanisms of Thought
- reflective abstraction
What are schemes?
mental patterns or systems that describe how people think of the world
What is organization?
consolidating existing information
What is adaption?
adjusting our schemes and experiences to maintain a state of equilibrium
What is reflective abstraction?
noticing and thinking about implications of information and experiences
2 processes of adaption
What is assimilation?
incorporation of new experiences into already existing schemes
What is accommodation?
modifying or adding new schemes to fit the new information
2 Results of Mechanisms
What is equilibrium?
act of searching for state of mental balance
What is equilibration?
process of moving between states of equilibrium and disequilibrium
Piaget's stage 1
- sensorimotor thought
- symbolic thought (representational)
What is sensorimotor thought?
Know the world through sensory input and physical and motor actions on it
What is symbolic thoughts?
- ability to form symbols that stand for objects or events in world
- able to think about things
6 substages of sensorimotor period
- primary circular reactions
- secondary circular reactions
- combination of secondary schemes
- tertiary circular reactions
- transition to symbolic thought
Age and task of reflexive substage?
- 0-1 month
- exercising reflexes
Age and task of primary circular reactions?
- 1-4 months
- produce a pleasing event
Age and task of secondary circular reactions?
- 4-10 months
- Making interesting events
Age and task of combination of secondary schemes?
- 10-12 months
- Intentional actions
Age and task of tertiary circular reactions?
- 12-18 months
- repeat old schemes to see what happens
Age and task of transition to symbolic thought?
- 18 months-2 years
- use words and gestures
What is Object permanence?
knowledge that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen
What did Baillargeon believe?
- Object permanence achieved by 2-1/2 months
- Violation of expectation studies
3 key features that distinguish human language
What is semanticity?
language represents thoughts, objects, events through specific and abstract symbols
What is productive?
no limits to numbers or types of utterances
What is displacement?
people can communicate about things that are distant in time or space
3 Theories of Language Development
- Learning Theory
- Nativist Theory
- Interaction Theory
What is the Learning Theory?
- language as skilled behavior that children learn through operant conditioning, imitation, and modeling
- Also called environmental view
- Biological predispositions do not play important role
- Based on behaviorist view of learning
4 Criticisms of Learning Theory
- how consistent parents are
- Language children hear is incomplete
- Cannot account for novelty
- we are biologically predisposed to develop language
What is the Nativist Theory?
- innate human capability that develops when language input triggers a language acquisition device (LAD) in the brain
- Children must hear some language to activate LAD, but extensive input not necessary
- Language acquisition does not require great cognitive skill or effort
What is Language Acquisition Device (LAD)?
brain mechanism in humans that is specialized for acquiring and processing language
Person behind Nativist Theory
Specialized language structures
- Wernicke’s area
- Broca’s area
- Arcuate fasciculus
- Angular gyrus
What is Wernicke's Area?
- in left temporal lobe
- allows humans to understand words and produce coherent language
What is Broca’s area?
- left frontal lobe
- directs patterns of muscle movements needed for speech production
What is Arcuate fasciculus?
band of fibers connecting Wernicke’s with Broca’s areas
What is Angular gyrus?
involved in processing written language
Criticisms of Nativist Theory
- Children do not always develop normal language independent of environment
- researchers have not identified single universal grammar that applies to all languages
What is the Interaction Theory: Cognitive?
- Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory – language is one of several abilities that depends on cognitive development
- Proper cognitive development is a prerequisite for normal language development
- Only when children have object permanence and can use symbols to represent things are they capable of language
What is the Interaction Theory: Social?
- Language development results from interaction of biological and social factors and social interaction is required
- Simply hearing language is not enough
- Parents also communicate with children through structured and social games (Peek-a-boo, Itsy Bitsy Spider)
- Also use motherese – child-directed speech
4 Prelinguistic Communication
- Turn-taking: smile at pauses
- Gesturing: reaching and pointing
- Discriminating Sounds: rely on facial movements
- Speech Production: cooing, babbling
3 Linguistic Communication
- Linguistic domains
- Linguistic stages
What are linguistic domains?
- Phonology: sounds
- Semantics: meanings
- Syntax: grammar
- Pragmatics: rules and conventions about how and when
What are the linguistic stages?
- First words
- Two-word stage
- Telegraphic speech
What are first words?
- extension of babbling – consonant-vowel pairings that are repeated
- Shows understanding that words are symbols
- Characteristics (2 identical sounds, often)
- Holophrases (“milk” means “I want milk”)
Rules on word names
- Mutual Exclusivity
- Whole Object
- Lexical Contrast
- Taxonomic constraint
- Sentence cues
What is mutual exclusivity?
If an unfamiliar word is heard in the presence of objects that already have names and objects that don’t, the word refers to one of the objects that does not have a name
What is whole object?
A name refers to a whole object, not its parts or its relation to other objects
What is lexical contrast?
When the name for the whole object is known, and another name is provided, the new name applies to a part of the object
What is taxonomic constraint?
words label categories of similar objects
What are sentence cues?
Words embedded in sentences with other words that are already known help children narrow down the meaning of words
2 naming errors
2 language learning styles
- Referential Style: Vocabularies mainly consist of words than name objects, persons, or actions
- Expressive Style: Vocabularies include some names but also many social phrases that are used like a single word (e.g., what’d you want?)
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