Science and Civ

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Science and Civ
2013-10-03 15:51:41
Science Civilization BYU

Test 1 for Phil 210
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  1. Big Bang
    14 Billion years ago
  2. Stone age
    About 3 million years ago
  3. neolithic
    • "new stone"
    • Ended about 8000 years ago
  4. paleolithic
    • "old stone"
    • 3 million - 6,000 BC
  5. Agricultural Revolution
    • Sedentary lifestyle
    • Social organization
    • Population increased
  6. Divination
    Predicting the future with random objects, such as bones or lots
  7. Horus
    • son of Ises and Osiris
    • God of the Sun
  8. Osiris
    God of the Underworld
  9. Anubis
    • Jackle-head
    • prepares the dead
  10. Shu
    Air that separates the sky and earth
  11. Nut
    The starry sky
  12. Geb
    The Earth god
  13. Seth
    • Brother of Osiris
    • Evil?
  14. Thoth
    • Crane headed
    • recorded information
  15. Shawabtis
    Small clay servents
  16. What changes occurred during the Neolithic age to prepare for the emergence of the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations?
    Farming, animal domestication, and metallurgy.
  17. Explain the appeal of the nomadic life? Why have nomadic and sedentary peoples traditionally been suspicious of each other? Who has won the struggle over which lifestyle best fits human beings?
    Slightly less work. Simplistic life. No material connections. Food production has been shown to be better than hunter/gatherer.
  18. Most of us consider ourselves civilized. What exactly does this mean? In what ways are you different from Paleolithic people who lived 15,000 years ago? Do you think your life is richer, better, and more enlightened than theirs, or just different?
    It means we live in a complicated group of organized humans. I am different in my resources and connections. It is equal in any non-external measurement, such as happiness.
  19. Mesopotamia
    • Modern Iraq and Egypt.
    • The fertile crescent and birthplace of civilization.
  20. cuneiform
    Mesopotamian language that is considered the first written language. Based on words, then ideas.
  21. ziggurat
    Large step pyramid.
  22. Hammurabi
    • 1700 BC.
    • First law- no prison, life not values, superstitious
  23. sacred geography
    Idea that the location has a sacred aspect intrinsic in them.
  24. Gilgamesh
    The Mesopotamian flood story, about how a human came to recognize his mortality.
  25. Discuss the Code of Hammurabi. Where and when did it originate? Why is it important? Why was it brought into existence? Give several examples of its laws and penalties, being sure to explain the rationale behind each penalty.
    The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian law code, dating back to about 1772 BC. It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world. The sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi, enacted the code, and partial copies exist on a human-sized stone stele and various clay tablets. The Code consists of 282 laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth" as graded depending on social status, of slave versus free man.Nearly one-half of the Code deals with matters of contract, establishing, for example, the wages to be paid to an ox driver or a surgeon. Other provisions set the terms of a transaction, establishing the liability of a builder for a house that collapses, for example, or property that is damaged while left in the care of another. A third of the code addresses issues concerning household and family relationships such as inheritance, divorce, paternity and sexual behavior. Only one provision appears to impose obligations on an official; this provision establishes that a judge who reaches an incorrect decision is to be fined and removed from the bench permanently. A handful of provisions address issues related to military service.
  26. Rosetta stone
    A stone found by Napoleon around 1800 that had Greek, Egyptian, and Demotic written on it. It allowed historians to "crack" Egyptian.
  27. hieroglyphs
    Ancient Egyptian writing system. No set direction to read in.
  28. polytheism
    worship of multiple gods
  29. Pyramid of Khufu
    The Great Pyramid
  30. Ankh
    represents the umbilical cord, which means eternity
  31. Canopic jars
    Jars that hold a mummy's organs until they are resurrected.
  32. Ammut
    Dog like monster that will eat you if your heart weighs more than the feather of truth.
  33. hypocephalus
    circular map used after your death (facsimile)
  34. Maat
    God of truth, who measures your heart
  35. Pyramid
    • Signs of earthly power
    • United the earth and sky
    • Represented primordial mounds rising from the sea of creation
  36. Shi Huangdi
    Chinese emperor.  Believed that people were intrinsically lazy and needed laws to push them forward.  Unified China, built up the Great Wall, standardized wights and measures and coinage, simplified and standardized characters, built roads and canals.Also believed in legalism, burned books, had little concern for life, tried to find elixir of immortality, Terra Cotta army
  37. Confucius
    With education, people will cooperate, not compete.  Moral virtue, family, social
  38. Confucianism
    belief in community as opposed to individual rights, people are born lazy and selfish but can be taught to change. Gov’t, society, and public education are all valued.
  39. Legalism
    Same as Confucianism except that people cannot change. It was instituted by Shi Huangdi
  40. Taoism
    Nature is at its best, we cannot improve upon it. No need for Gov’t or education
  41. Great Wall of China
    built up by Shi Huangdi
  42. wuwei
    Action through inaction
  43. li
    do the right thing according to your social circumstance, such as pay deference to parents
  44. Hinduism
    polytheistic. believe in reincarnation, wheel of re-birth
  45. karma
    law of the harvest, return unto you what you do
  46. nirvana
    This is when you get off of the wheel of rebirth.  A state of enlightenment, and loss of the sense of individuality, connects you to all human beings
  47. reincarnation
    cycle of rebirth after death. New life is based on previous life’s deeds. called the wheel of rebirth
  48. ahimsa
    Non-violence.  Everything deserves to be alive so don’t hurt anything.  Life is valuable
  49. duhkha
    life is pain and suffering, especially the pain of getting what you want
  50. 4 Nobel Truths
    • Duhkha
    • Duhkha is caused by our desires and attachments
    • There will be an end to Duhkha one day
    • 8-fold path (how we end suffering)
  51. Bodhisattva
    People who practice ‘big raft’ buddhism.  They want to be the last to enter Nirvana to help everyone else .  Particular to Mahayana buddhism
  52. Mahayana
    ‘big vehicle’ buddism, saved as a society
  53. Theravada
    practiced by monks, ‘little raft’ buddhism, save yourself
  54. Buddha
    “The enlightened One”, there are multiple Buddhas possible in existence.
  55. yoga
    Make the mind and body one, a yoking of them together.
  56. asceticism
    Deny the carnal, fast for days, the only way to remove yourself from the world
  57. Discuss the rise of Buddhism and Jainism in a Hindu setting and expound the teachings of Gautama Buddha.Buddhism and Jainism are rebel religions.Four noble truths of Buddhism that lead to leaving the wheel of rebirth, designed to eliminate the monkey mind:    1. life is pain/suffering    2.cravings,  yearnings and attachments lead to suffering    3.There can be a cessation of suffering    4.delivered through the 8-fold pathmindfulness
    • Buddhism and Jainism are rebel religions, against the injustices of Hinduism
    • Four noble truths of Buddhism that lead to leaving the wheel of rebirth, designed to eliminate the monkey mind:
  58. Diaspora
    dispersion; scattering of Jews
  59. Lost Ten Tribes
    the 10 Tribes were taken into captivity from the North Kingdom of Israel in the 720s B.C. by the Assyrians.
  60. Assyrian Captivity
    720 BC
  61. Babylonian exile
    • 600 B.C.
    • Daniel and Ezekiel
  62. Semitic
    The race of the Jews and those in that region.  Semitic languages: Arabic, Aramaic, Hebrew
  63. Discuss Judaism’s innovations and gifts to civilization.
    • Monotheism
    • The Bible
    • Law, for the 10 Commandments
    • Covenant with God
  64. Thales
    • 600 BC
    • Monism
    • believed water was the source of all things.
  65. Monism
    There is a single root cause to everything
  66. Anaximenes
    Monist who believed air was the source of all
  67. Anaximander
    Believed in apeiron, the idea that "the boundless" is another dimension. It appears to us as opposites that break down over time and slip back into the boundless.
  68. Heraclitus
    ever changing nature- no man steps in the same river twice
  69. Permenides
    Change is not real. Reality is static. Kind of the first raionalist, and everything is just a hallucination.
  70. Zeno of Eloa
    • Proposed about 40 anti-motion paradoxes:
    • Cannot move from a to b because must travel half the distance and half the remaining distance etc… so you must travel through an infinite number of points in a finite time period.
    • In a race, you will eventually be where the other person was, always being were they were so never where they are.
    • An arrow cannot ever move because it can only occupy space as large as it is