A&P Orientation, Directional Terms, Regional Terms

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A&P Orientation, Directional Terms, Regional Terms
2013-10-03 23:52:01
Anatomy physiology 231 chapter

Chapter 1 terminology
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  1. Above; toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body.
    Superior (cranial)
  2. Below; away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body.
    Inferior (caudal)
  3. In front of; toward or at the front of the body.
    Ventral (anterior)
  4. Behind; toward or at the back of the body.
    Dorsal (posterior)
  5. On the inner side of; toward or at the mid-line of the body.
  6. On the outer side of; away from the mid-line of the body.
  7. Paired structures, one on each side.
  8. Structures on the same side.
  9. Structures on the opposites side.
  10. Between a more medial and a more lateral structure.
  11. Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.
  12. Farther from the origin of a body part of the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.
  13. Toward or at the body surface.
    Superficial (external)
  14. Away from the body surface, more internal.
    Deep (internal)
  15. Head
  16. Forehead
  17. Eyes & sockets
  18. Nose
  19. Mouth
  20. Chin
  21. Neck
  22. Chest
  23. Center front of chest, over the sternum.
  24. Sides of chest, in area of arm pits.
  25. Chest area from collarbone down to diaphragm, minus axillary & sternal areas.
  26. Abdomen from diaphragm to waist.
  27. Belly button
  28. Area just below the waist.
  29. Area just below the pelvic area, not including genitalia.
    Inguinal (groin)
  30. Front genitalia area.
    Pubic (genital)
  31. Shoulder
  32. Upper arm
  33. Inner elbow
  34. Elbow
  35. Forearm
  36. Wrist
  37. Hand
  38. Thumb
  39. Back of hand
  40. Palm of hand
  41. Fingers and toes
  42. Hips (sides)
  43. Thigh
  44. Knee
  45. Back of knee
  46. Lower Leg
  47. Calf
  48. Lateral side of calf.
    Fibular or peroneal
  49. Foot
  50. Ankle
  51. Heel of foot
  52. Top of the foot.
  53. Bottom of foot.
  54. Big toe.
  55. Ear
  56. Back of head.
  57. Back
  58. Shoulder blade
  59. Spinal area
  60. Lower area lateral to the vertebral area.
  61. Area below vertebral area, between gluts.
  62. Buttocks
  63. Area between anus and external genitalia.
  64. Vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior.
    Frontal or coronal plane
  65. Vertical plane that divides the bodinto right and left.
    • Sagittal plane
    • midsagittal = equal right & left halves
    • parasagittal = unequal division
  66. Plane that divides the body into superior and inferior portions.
    Transverse or horizontal plane
  67. Organ system that forms the external body covering, and protects deeper tissues from injury.  Synthesizes vitamin D and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors and sweat and oil glands.
    Integumentary system.  Made up of hair, skin and nails.
  68. Organ system that protects and supports body organs and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement.  Stores minerals and forms blood cells.
    Skeletal system.  Made up of bones and joints.
  69. Organ system that allows manipulations of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression.  Maintains posture and produces heat.
    Muscular system.  Made up of muscles.
  70. Organ system that is the fast-acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands.
    Nervous system.  Made up of brain, spinal cord and nerves.
  71. Organ system in charge of secreting hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells.
    Endocrine system.  Pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid, thymus, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries and testes.
  72. Organ system that transports blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc.
    Cardiovascular system.  Made up of heart and blood vessels.
  73. Organ system that picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to the blood.  Houses white blood cells involved in immunity.  Immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances with the body and disposes of debris.
    Lymphatic system/Immunity.  Made up of red bone marrow, thymus, lymphatic vessels, thoracic duct, spleen and lymph nodes.
  74. Organ system that keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.  The gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs.
    Respiratory system.  Made up of nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs and bronchus.
  75. Organ system that breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells.  Indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces.
    Digestive system.  Made up of oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, liver, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus.
  76. Organ system that eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body.  Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood.
    Urinary system.  Made up of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra.
  77. Organ system that produces offspring by producing sperm, ova, and sex hormones among other things.
    Reproductive system.  Made up of Prostate gland, penis, testes, ductus deferens and scrotum in males and the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina and mammary glands in females.
  78. 6 levels of structural organization in order of smallest to largest:
    • Chemical - atoms combine to form molecules
    • Cellular - made up of molecules
    • Tissue - consist of similar types of cells
    • Organ - made up of different types of tissues
    • Organ system - made up of organs working closely together
    • Organism - made up of many organ systems
  79. The 8 Necessary Life Functions, what an organism needs internally to survive:
    • Maintaining boundaries
    • Movement
    • Responsiveness (or irritability)
    • Digestion
    • Metabolism
    • Excretion
    • Growth
    • Reproduction
  80. Necessary Life Function that ensures that the internal environment remains distinct from the external environment.
    Maintaining boundaries
  81. Necessary Life Function that includes the activities promoted by the muscular system.
  82. Necessary Life Function that gives us the ability to sense changes (stimuli) in the environment and then react to them.
    Responsiveness or irritability
  83. Necessary Life Function that involves the breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood.
  84. Necessary Life Function that includes all chemical reactions that occur within body cells.
  85. Necessary Life Function that removes wastes, or excreta, from the body.
  86. Necessary Life Function that occurs at the cellular and organismal levels for the propagation of the species.
  87. Necessary Life Function that increases the size of a body part or organism.
  88. The 5 Survival Needs, what organisms need externally to survive:
    • Nutrients
    • Oxygen
    • Water
    • Normal body temperature
    • Appropriate atmospheric pressure
  89. Posterior body cavity containing:
    -Cranial cavity (inside the skull, encases the brain)
    -Vertebral cavity (inside the vertebral column, encases the spinal cord)
    Dorsal body cavity
  90. Anterior body cavity containing:
    -Pleural cavities (lungs)
    -Pericardial cavity within the mediastinum (heart)
    Thoracic cavity
  91. Anterior body cavity containing:
    -Abdominal cavity (digestive viscera)
    -Pelvic cavity (urinary bladder, reproductive organs, rectum)
    Abdominopelvic cavity
  92. Anterior body cavity containing both the Thoracic and Abdominopelvic cavities
    Ventral body cavity
  93. Small body cavity containing the teeth and tongue, part of and continuous with the cavity of the digestive organs.
    Oral and digestive cavities
  94. Small cavity located within and posterior to the nose, part of the respiratory system passageways.
    Nasal cavity
  95. Small cavities in the skull that house the eyes.
    Orbital cavity
  96. Small cavities in the skull that lie just medial to the eardrums.
    Middle ear cavities
  97. Small cavities that are enclosed within fibrous capsules that surround freely movable joints.
    Synovial cavities.
  98. Thin, double-layered membrane lining the ventral body cavity.
    Serosa or serous membrane
  99. Serous membrane lining the walls of the cavity walls.
    Parietal serosa
  100. Serous membrane lining the exterior of the organs inside the ventral cavity.
    Visceral serosa
  101. Lubricating fluid between the two layers of serous membrane.
    Serous fluid
  102. Centermost (of 9) region, deep to and surrounding the belly button, contains the small intestine and transverse colon of large intestine.
    Umbilical region
  103. Region (of 9) directly superior to the umbilical region, contains most of the stomach and about half of the liver.
    Epigastric region
  104. Region (of 9) located directly inferior to the umbilical region, containing part of the intestines and the urinary bladder.
    Hypogastric region
  105. Region (of 9) located to the left of the hypogastric region, containing the initial part of the sigmoid colon.
    Left iliac (inguinal) region
  106. Region (of 9) located to the right of the hypogastric region, containing the cecum and the appendix.
    Right iliac (inguinal) region
  107. Region (of 9) located to the left of the umbilical region, containing the descending colon of the large intestine
    Left lumbar region
  108. Region (of 9) located to the right of the umbilical region, containing the ascending colon of the large intestine.
    Right lumbar region
  109. Region (of 9) located to the left of the epigastric region, containing ribs and a small part of the stomach
    Left hypochondriac
  110. Region (of 9) located to the right of the epigastric region, containing about half the liver and the gallbladder.
    Right hypochondriac region