COM Exam 1 FlashCards Rough Final.txt

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  1. Definition of Communication
    No universally accepted definition; human communication is the process of creating meaning through symbolic interaction
  2. Symbolic communication (unlike animals) lets humans
    Talk about the past, explain the present, and guess/predict the future
  3. Intrapersonal Communication
    Communicating with oneself; the way we process info mentally; affects how we interact with others
  4. Dyadic/Interpersonal Communication
    Two people interacting is a dyad; most common type personal comm; not all 2 person interactions considered interpersonal
  5. Small group communication
    Every member can participate w/other members; can put conformity pressures on minority (does not exist in dyad); can be comforting and lead to bigger risks; more creative; influenced by leader
  6. Public communication
    When group is too large for all members to contribute; unequal amount of speaking; limited verbal feedback; few speak, others=audience
  7. Mass communication:
    Has messages that are sent to widespread audiences; no personal contact between senders + receivers; developed/financed by large corps; controlled/filtered by many (gatekeepers)
  8. Functions of CommPhysical
    Not everyone needs same amount, but is essential for well being; cancer strikes more isolated people; isolation = 2-3x more likely to have early death, etc.
  9. Functions of CommIdentity Needs
    Way we learn who we are; decide who we are based on how others react to us
  10. Function of CommSocial Needs
    For pleasure, inclusion, affection, escape, relaxation, control, etc.
  11. Function of CommPractical Needs
    Important for work, home, hobbies, haircuts, going to doctors, etc.
  12. Linear Model
    Like an injection: sender encodes feelings/ideas in message for receiver who decodes them. (can send and receive messages simultaneously in a single minute)
  13. Feedback
    Discernible response of a receiver to a senders message (not always non verbal). Silence is a form of communication.
  14. Communications is fluid
    Way we respond in present is determined by past interactions
  15. Communications is relational
    Depends on the involvement of a partner
  16. Communication is not the tool that is used:
    Means of imparting/exchanging info; means of connection between people and places
  17. 4 characteristics of Comm (things to think about)
    It is a process (an action); human; shared; and symbolic
  18. Comm as process:
    Something you do/engage in;
  19. Act of Comm
    Refers to the medium (text message= piece of comm; reading it =communicating)
  20. Transactional Model
    Sender + receiver; idea/concept; medium/channel; encoding/decoding process; feedback; fields of experience; context/environment; noise
  21. Noise
    Physical sounds you hear that interrupt comm
  22. Reasons for choosing human limitation for comm
    Easier; more reliable findings; provides boundaries; more professionally practical
  23. Definition of Man by Kenneth Burke
    Humans are symbol users, misuser, creators (slang, etc); inventors of the negative (we add good/bad connotations); goaded by sense of hierarchy (want to understand our place in the worldmoved by sense of order); separated from natural condition by instruments of our own making (umbrellas to protect against rain, etc); rotten with perfection (take perfect and try to improve it so much that it isnt good anymore)
  24. Language
    Collection of symbols governed by rules and used to convey messages; common symbol system; always contextual (like all comm); choice drive activity;
  25. Symbols
    Arbitrary constructions that represent a communicators thoughts; meanings are in people, not words; successful com occurs when negotiate word meanings (1/2 speaker, ? recipients)
  26. Phonological Rules
    Govern how words sound when pronounced
  27. Syntactic rules
    Govern structure of language (the way symbols are arranged)
  28. Semantic rules
    Deal w/meaning of specific words
  29. Pragmatic rules
    Govern how people use language in everyday life/how words are understood and used
  30. Names
    Shape the way others think of us (ex. Indian name for a god Karan appears as a girls name here)
  31. Credibility
    Use of impressive sounding language etc. to sound more informed
  32. Status
    Accent, choice words, speech rate, age of speaker (all can be guessed by language)
  33. Sexism and racism
    Usually easy to avoid such language (choice of words indicates this)
  34. Power affiliation
    Special terms between people
  35. Convergence
    Speaking to blend in with a group, region, etc.
  36. Divergence
    Speaking in a way that separates from others
  37. Powerless language:
    Hedges, hesitations, intensifiers, polite forms, tag questions, and disclaimers
  38. Equivocal language
    More than one correct dictionary definition
  39. Relative words
    Gain meaning by comparing
  40. Slang and jargon
    Language used by a group of people who belong to similar coculture
  41. Regionalisms
    Terms understood by people who live in one geographic area
  42. Jargon
    Specialized vocabulary that functions as a kind of shorthand
  43. Nonverbal
    those behaviors other than words themselves that form a socially shared coding system; not just body language; omnipresent; can be used to communicate across language barriers; tend to believe nonverbal over verbal (think it more unconscious)
  44. Kinesics:
    all forms of body movement excluding physical contact with another
  45. Ekman + FriesensEmblems
    Body movements that carry meaning in and of themselves (can stand alone w/o verbal)
  46. Ekman + FriesensIllustrators
    Do not carry meaning w/o verbal (help receivers interpret/understand what is being said)
  47. E+FRegulators
    Body movement employed to help guide a conversation (head nod to continue, etc)
  48. E+Fadaptors
    Rarely intended to communicate anything but are needed to satisfy physical/psychological needs; 3 categories (self adaptors, alter directed adaptors, and object adaptors)
  49. Affect displays
    Body movement that express emotion w/o use of touch
  50. Haptics
    General category of non verbal behavior; refers to all aspects of touch (categorized by function)
  51. Proxemics
    The way we use space
  52. Territories
    Physically fixed areas that one or more individuals defend as their own (band corner, etc)
  53. Personal space
    Proxemic based need that moves with the individual (i.e. space bubble)
  54. Eye contact
    Common way to violate or restore personal space
  55. Physical appearance
    All aspects of how we look; 3 general body types (ectomorphs, mesomorphic, and endomorphic)
  56. Ectomorphs
    Thin bone structure and lean
  57. Mesomorphic
    Strong bone structure and muscular and athletic
  58. Endomorphic
    Large bone structure and typically heave set/somewhat rounded
  59. Vocalics
    Reflect all aspects of the voice
  60. Communication accommodation theory
    We converge our speech w/whom we want to be associated with
  61. Chronemic Code
    Our use and perception of time (how long events are acceptable, etc. 2 hour movie v. 2 hour lecture)
  62. Polychronism
    Doing multiple activities at once
  63. Monochronism
    Focus on one activity at a time
  64. Artifacts
    Physical objects/environment that guides behavior or defines communication context (fixed feature and semi-fixed features)
  65. Communication as Shared
    Cant really miscommunicate with yourself (accidental waves, facial expressions, etc); etymological root of word (communicare=to share, communis=duties together)
  66. Communication as Symbolic
    Always, ALWAYS symbolic; symbols are any representative of a though/idea/concept etc; words by very nature are symbolic
  67. ALL Symbols (Characteristics):
    Flexible/malleable (change); arbitrary (make words to fit things); useful; powerful (move people to act, change)
  68. Difference between symbols + signals
    Signals: do not require immediate stimulus, response vary more widely, symbols more abstract; (signs and signals often interpreted symbolistically by humans, but NOT by animals)
  69. Words you use:
    Say something about you (education, geographic background, experience, etc)
  70. Importance of Language
    Shapes and reflects attitudes; creates and alters reality; is necessary from a practical perspective
  71. Terministic Screens
    By Kenneth Burke; screen= viewing platform, something to filter/impede/cover; term=phrase, condition (of contract), end point, period time, etc.; words we choose reflect and shape our attitudes (get to go to class v. have to go); create and alter reality (virtual space and time; alters understanding of the world around us).
  72. Functions of Non-verbal Codes:
    Structuring and regulating interaction; creating and managing identities; communicating emotions; defining and managing relationships; influencing others; deceiving others.
  73. Virtual Space
    • Foot as measurement v. meter
    • 364.4 smoots +/- one ear
  74. Virtual Time
    Does have physical component (earth rotating around once. i.e. a day); we create daylight savings, leap year, etc.
  75. Languagepractical perspective
    Helps meet physical, social, identity, and practical needs more effectively. Because humans create, use, and misuse it, LANGUAGE IS NECESSARILY FLAWED. It reflects but not always accurately.
  76. Proxemics + Edward T Hall
    Public zone is 12 ft; social zone is 4-12ft; personal zone is 1.5-4ft; intimate zone is 0-1.5ft. Varies with culture (e.t. hall is mostly western society). Establishes parameters of relationships, context and culture based, and fixed vs. semi-fixed space.
  77. Anthromorphize
    Giving animals human characteristics (usually/mostly non-verbal)
  78. Two Types MeaningConnotative
    More emotionally charged; includes interpretive value; often based on personal experience; includes socially charged meaning
  79. Two Types MeaningDenotative
    dictionary def; most objective; most widely shared meaning
  80. Complexity of Meaning
    Arbitrary and flexible nature makes it hard to have just one meaning; complex cognitive structure of humans (blend of rational and emotional); ability to create symbols; heavy reliance on symbols (cant think w/o it).
  81. Sharing/Spreading Meaning
    Teaching; individual experiences; naming new experiences (usually based on combo of old names and experiences); mass communication
  82. Influences on Meaning
    Vocalics (emphasis); fields of experience; context (appropriation, bricolage, and counter-bricolage); form of the message (discursive + presentational)
  83. ContextPlaying with meaning
    Expectations can be exploited; meanings can be transferred; new meanings for old ideas, etc.
  84. Appropriation
    Taking a symbol and using it in a new, possibly unexpected way (ideas/concepts, etc). Includes parodies (weird al song parodies, etc).
  85. Production of meaning involves 3 elements:
    • 1) codes and conventions that structure the image and cannot be separated from content
    • 2) views and how they interpret/experience the image
    • 3) the context in which the image is view/exhibited
  86. Viewing is
    Relational and social (whether or not viewing in public, private, or if the image is personal).
  87. Interpellate
    Interrupt procedure to question someone or something formally; catching our attention; must know that the image is meant for me to understand; can be interpellated w/o feeling like you are the one being hailed
  88. Producer
    can refer to individuals, groups, coporate conglomerate, etc.
  89. Meaning created + Producers
    Meaning also created by when, where, what consumes them
  90. Producer Function
    Set of beliefs that lead us to have certain expectations about a work with regard to the status of its producer.
  91. Viewer Interpretations
    All include aesthetics + taste; much of value of art is established through previous ownership; collecting and exhibiting art has influence on meaning
  92. Aesthetics
    Usually thought they were culturally determined but is actually generally based on the individual and what they find attractive
  93. Taste
    Culturally determined
  94. Habitus
    Set of dispositions and preferences we share as related to class position, education, and social standing
  95. Semiotic Square
    Purpose of mapping the movement of art and cultural artifacts
  96. Bricolage
    Taking an object and altering its meaning by changing the way its used. Creating new meaning by assembling seemingly divergent symbols. OF OBJECTS.
  97. Counter-bricolage
    Commercializing new meaning of bricolaged object by making it popular.
  98. Bricolage + Counter Bricolage Examples
    Turn buckets into drums; making show called stomp that does it
  99. Discursive
    Linear, chronological, orderly, words, mathematical equations, sheets of music, newsprint, stories, etc. ORDER MATTERS. Rules based (rules indicate proper reading). Rational, reason based. Easier for building arguments; allows for varying levels precision; emotional appeals take more time/effort but are very possible.
  100. Presentational
    Complete, multifaceted, presented as a whole (paintings, photographs, etc). More readily elicits emotions; not as obviously rules based + less overtly rational; prone to more varied interpretations; precision invites multiple readings; arguments more challenging to make clear but can be done.
  101. Blending
    Front page newspaper, advertisements, etc. Music=discursive. Most memorable + effective communication; simultaneous rational and emotional appeals (emotion encourages initial action while reason encourages long term + repeated action).
  102. Making effective messages general considerations
    Context, audience, purpose, expectations, constraints (can come from any of other elementsword limit, time limits, etc).
  103. 6 Cs of Language
    Clear, Concise, Concrete, Colorful (or creative), culturally sensitive, and correct.
  104. Clear
    Say what you actually mean; dont assume the audience will get your meaning; avoid using big words just for the sake of it; euphemisms only useful if you want to be vague.
  105. Concise
    Never use 10 words when 3 will do; Occams Razor/Parsimony Principle (entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily); always use the # of words necessary; healthy (varied) vocabulary.
  106. Concrete (v. abstract)
    Transportation, automobile, car, sports car, classic sports car, 1956 corvette, candy apple red 1956 convertible corvette
  107. Colorful (or creative)
    Adjectives and adverbs; make sure they add to meaning; make clear and interesting; sometimes clever use of words it appropriate, sometimes it is not;
  108. Johannes Gutenburg
    More literacy with printing press (although China had first, but Gutenburg is credited with it)
  109. Socrates + Plato Against Writing
    S for face-to-face comm; P feared would destroy memory
  110. The Book
    Changed prioriteies of com; characteristics include division of labor, primacy for creativity and originality, linearity, discreteness, and fixity.
  111. Fixity
    Info fixed by being in multiple copies
  112. Discreteness
    Text experienced by itself, in isolation, separated from others (if you need to find footnote, have to go physically get the other book)
  113. Division of Labor
    The author and audience have totally different tasks (written, published, distributed, and maybe bought/borrowed, and read).
  114. Primacy for Creativity and Originality
    Does not include collaboration, community, or dialogue (impossible in a medium that requires physical marks).
  115. Linearity
    Unless reference book, usually meant to be read front to back, one page at a time, in sequence. Web space=non linear.
  116. Principles of Good Writing
    Be brief, precise, active (avoid passive), imaginative, direct, consistent (use parallel structure, etc.), aware, and concise.
  117. Putting Words into Ideas
    Determine your purpose (brainstorm, cluseter, free write); Map it out (topic, points, primary/addtl audiences, goal, sources, method to gather info); Outline and Storyboard it (organize how it will be presented, roman numerals, visual outline, reverse outlining); Revise and revise (focus on 1st and last paragraphs, your two favorite sentences, adjectives, adverbs, clichs, ambiguity, vagueness, and generalities).
  118. Culturally Sensitive
    Avoid sensitive, racist, homophobic language. Think about Burkes terministic screen. Know your audience and yourself.
  119. Correct
    Follow rules of grammar; can only break the rules once you show you know them; failure to follow rules can lead to miscommunication; emphasis does not require exclamation points; think about semicolons; watch for comma splices
  120. Word Choice
    Use words correctly; connotative and denotative meaning change meaning; common uses are not always correct (i.e. very unique> unique just is. It is or is not. No varying degrees. Media is plural, medium is singular).
  121. Common Errors
    Misused apostrophes; noun/verb disagreement; plural/singular inconsistency; passive voice; sexist language
  122. Presentational Considerations
    Is approach appropriate (what best types of forms for situation, how will presentational elements influence overall meaning?); Presentational elements (have denotative and connotative meanings, influence feel of message, provide an experience and pseudo-experience for receiver, alter our understanding of reality examples color, angle, cropping, audio, visual edits, etc.).
  123. Visual and Audio Edits
    Blend of presentational and discursive. Give sense time and/or movement of story; set tone or mood; imply actions w/o graphic or overt description
  124. Karl Marx + False consciousness
    The dominant social classes that own or control the newspaper, television, film, and comm industries are able to control the content of those forms. Marx though of ideology as a kind of falsconsiouness that was spread by dominiant powers among the masses, who are coerced by those in power to mindlessly buy into the belief systems that allow capitalsism to thrive.
  125. Althusser + Ideology
    Without ideology we would have no means of thinking about or experiencing the thing we call reality.
  126. Gramsci + Hegemony (instead of Marx domination)
    Hegemony= power negotiated among all classes of people (enacted through push and pull of among all levels of society). Relationships are constantly changing (so dominant ideas must constantly be reaffirmed because there is possibility of countering ideas).
  127. Three positions viewers can take as decoders of images:
    Dominant-hegemonic reading, negotiated reading, and oppositional reading.
  128. Dominant-hegemonic reading
    Identify with the hegemonic position and receive dominant message of an image without question
  129. Negotiated Reading
    Negotiate an interpretation from the image and its dominant meanings
  130. Oppositional Reading
    Either by completely disagreeing with the ideological position embodied in an image or rejecting it altogether (i.e. by ignoring it).
  131. Textual Poaching
    Inhabiting a text like a rented apartment; negotiating meanings through it and creating new cultural products in response to it, making it their own
  132. Counter-Bricolage
    Appropriation by mainstream marketers and producers (often loses the political meaning behind it).
  133. Linguistic Relativism
    (i.e. snow for Inuits and other cultures)
  134. Abstraction
  135. Death of the Author
    Authors have conceded control of their work to the readers. It is the readers who create meaning out of and interpret the messages.
  136. Communication Competence
    Wide range of behaviors, ability to choose the most appropriate behavior, skill at performing behaviors, empathy/perspective taking, cognitive complexity
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COM Exam 1 FlashCards Rough Final.txt
2013-10-03 20:51:43
com 101

com 101 terms exam 1
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