chapter 21 immune system
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what does the immune system do? what does it do directly and indirectly
protects the body from most infectious micro organisims cancer and transplanted organs.
- they do their job by directly by cellular attack
- and indirectly by mobilizing chemicals and protective antibodies.
describe the innate and adaptive lines of defense?
innate(nonspecific) are ready to react.
1st line- fights, skin and mucous membranes and they are your external barriers
2nd line- internal barriers are fight fevers, inflammation,phaocytes, antimicrobial proteins
- adaptive( specific) :
- 3rd line- immune system and activete b cells for humoral immunity and T cells and cellular immunity.
Phagocytes in the immune system
Neutrophils, macrophages, opsonins.
opsonins coat pathogens and provide handles for phagocytic adherence.
neutrophils- become phagocytes when they see foreign material
macrophages- dominate sites of chronic inflammation. the phagocytes must adhere to ingest it and recognize non self carbs.
Natural killer cells
large grannular lymphocytes and are pit bulls of the immune system.
kill lyse and cancer cells. and they make the cells go through programmed cell death and secrete chemicals that enhance inflammation
describe inflammation in the immune system and what are its benefits.
its a local response to tissue injury.
its benefits are that it limits the spread of infection. removes debris and pathogens. then it alerts the adaptive immune system and begins repair
4 signs of inflammation
Redness, swelling heat, pain
describe the antimicrobial proteins.
it enhances the innate defenses and they attack microorganisims or hinder it from reproduction
Antimicrobial proteins: inferions
they protect cells that have not been affected by viruses by stimulating cells to produce interference to interfere with viral replication.
Antimicrobial proteins: complement
plasma proteins in an active state. its activation causes inflammatory response and lysing and killing of bacteria.
describe the fever
its a systemic response to invaders caused by pyrogens that raise body system
fevers promote inferons: that inhibits viral and bacterial reproduction. it also elevates metablolisin to increase tissue repair.
describe the T cells in the immune system
- they are for cellular immunity and do not produce antibodies.
- -afterwards they travel to the thymus and try to get surface antigen receptors only (2% pass)
- - so after coming from the bone marrow and patting thru they create naive cells like little clone t cells and live in lymph nodes, bone marrow and etc.
What does bcells do in the immune system.
they are for humeral immunity they are derived from bone marrow and they produce receptors for antigens. also create clones and are DISPURSED throughout the body
Describe antigen presenting cells
they engulf antigens and present pieces on their surfaces so the t cells can recognize and have their way with them.
what are the three different antigen presenting cells
dendric cells- on skin and bring antigens to the lymph nodes for T cells activation
Macro phages-bring antigens to T cells to activate themselves.
B lymphocytes- present antigens to helper t cells to get activated themselves.
what are the different types of humoral immunity
- natural active and natural passive
- antibodies created following a natual exposure. and natural passive is the placenta or breast milk.
- artificial active and artificial passive
- antibodies created after a vaccination and artifical passive is an injection of an immune serum following exposure (snake bite)
**all use antibodies and NO DIRECT ATTACK
what are the different types of cells found in cellular immunity?
Cytotoxic- directly attack and kill other cells
Helper Tcells- promote activation of other T and B cells
Regulatory T cells- limit immune response and prevent auto immune response.
Memory T cells- remembers previous encounters and LAST A LIFETIME.
what are cytokins
molecules that influence cell development, differention and immune responses.
**has infererons and interleukins.
how does helper t cells help in humoral immunity?
binds with the non-self complexes that have encountered its antigen and its displaying on mhc on its surface.
the helper cells then release interleukins as co stimulatory cells to complete the b cells activation.
how does the helper t cell help cellular immunity?
binds to the dendritic cell, it the stimulates cell to resales cop stimulatory molecules.
dendric cell can now activate CD8 cell with the help of interleukin 2 secreted by helper t cell.
what is hodgekins lymphoma?
aquired cancer of the b cells
in the homeostatic imbalance with hiv and AIDS
it interferes with helper tcells
what is the homeostatic imbalance SCID
severe combined immunodifeciency syndrome.
its a genetic lack of t and b cells.
name some auto immune diseases and what are the autoimmune diseases actually doing
- rheumatoid artritis
- -multiple sclerosis
- -graves disease
- -myasthenia gravis
the body losses the inability to distinguish self from non-self. it will produce antibodies and cytotoxic cells that will destroy own tissues.
what happens to the immune system when you age?
- greater chance of cancer. efficiency declines
- bigger chance of getting diseases
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