stimulate an increase in glucose levels for energy , increase the rate of protein breakdown and decrease the rate of protein formation from amino acids, another way of preserving energy. These also cause lipogenesis or the formation and storage of fat in the body.
prototype drug of glucocorticoids
are indicated for the short-term treatment of many inflammatory disorders, to relieve discomfort and to give the body a chance to heal from the effects of inflammation.
glucocorticoid agents (predisone)
increase sodium reabsorption in renal tubules, leading to sodium and water retention, and increase potassium excretion. Also used in conjunction with appropriate glucocorticoids.
prototype of mineralocorticoids
increases sodium reabsorption in the renal tubules and increases potassium and hydrogen excretion, leading to water and sodium retention.
these are released by the anterior pituitary and directly influence cell activity. These hormones are regulated by the release of hypothalamic inhibiting factors in response to hormone levels or a cellular mediator.
growth hormone and prolactin
produces six major hormones:
growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone, also called thyrotropin.
anterior pituitary gland
produces endorphins and enkephalins, which are released in response to severe pain or stress and occupy specific endorphin-receptor sites in the brainstem to block the perception of pain.