Allophonic - uses diacritics/specialized symbols and [brackets]
Phonemic - uses slash marks /p/ to capture on paper the transcription of phonemes with no reference to allophonic variation
Vowel, diphthong, or syllabic consonant. Every syllable must have a nucleus.
Nucleus and coda (if any).
If no coda, rhyme = nucleus:
e.g. al though
Consonant/consonant cluster that follows the nucleus of a syllable (not always found)
Consonant/consonant cluster at the beginning of a syllable.
Smallest unit of speech production which consists of either one vowel alone, or a vowel in combination with one or more consonants.
Two words which differ by one sound, and these two items are identified as distinctive items. e.g. fan/van (f vs v); shown/zone (sh vs z)
Phonetic realizations of the members of a particular phoneme. e.g. ph is an allophone of /p/. Every phoneme has a set of allophones.
=two lexical items which together create a new lexical item. Stress pattern: the 1st component carries primary stress, 2nd component carries secondary stress. e.g. 'silver,ware; 'match,box; 'ash,tray
An abstract class of sounds. Are language specific. Serve to distinguish between meanings of words. Pronounced in one or more ways, depending on the number of allophones. Are represented by slashes / /.
A phone that is part of a phoneme. Every phoneme has a set of allphones. Can't make minimal pairs out of set of phonetic realizations of the members of a particular phoneme. Must exhibit phonetic similarity, must not exist in contrastic environment. e.g. /ph/ is an allophone of /p/
A single speech sound; One of many possible sounds in the languages of the world. The smallest identifiable unit found in a stream of speech. Pronounced in a defined way. Represented between brackets [ ] ; generally include detailed information [ph] [p'].
A consonant which takes the role of a vowel: chism
/ou/ coat-on stressed syllable or at end of a word
A syllable that ends with a vowel phoneme (No Coda).
A syllable that ends with a consonant phoneme (Coda).