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  1. Narrow Transcription
    Allophonic - uses diacritics/specialized symbols and [brackets]
  2. Broad Transcription
    Phonemic  - uses slash marks /p/ to capture on paper the transcription of phonemes with no reference to allophonic variation
  3. Nucleus
    Vowel, diphthong, or syllabic consonant. Every syllable must have a nucleus.
  4. Rhyme
    • Nucleus and coda (if any).
    • If no coda, rhyme = nucleus:
    • e.g. al though
  5. Coda
    Consonant/consonant cluster that follows the nucleus of a syllable (not always found)
  6. Onset
    Consonant/consonant cluster at the beginning of a syllable.
  7. Syllable
    Smallest unit of speech production which consists of either one vowel alone, or a vowel in combination with one or more consonants.
  8. Minimal Pair
    Two words which differ by one sound, and these two items are identified as distinctive items.  e.g. fan/van (f vs v); shown/zone (sh vs z)
  9. Allophone
    Phonetic realizations of the members of a particular phoneme. e.g. ph is an allophone of /p/.  Every phoneme has a set of allophones.
  10. Noun Compound
    =two lexical items which together create a new lexical item.  Stress pattern: the 1st component carries primary stress, 2nd component carries secondary stress.  e.g. 'silver,ware; 'match,box; 'ash,tray
  11. Phoneme
    An abstract class of sounds.  Are language specific. Serve to distinguish between meanings of words.  Pronounced in one or more ways, depending on the number of allophones.  Are represented by slashes / /.
  12. Allophone
    A phone that is part of a phoneme. Every phoneme has a set of allphones.  Can't make minimal pairs out of set of phonetic realizations of the members of a particular phoneme.  Must exhibit phonetic similarity, must not exist in contrastic environment. e.g. /ph/ is an allophone of /p/
  13. Phone
    A single speech sound; One of many possible sounds in the languages of the world.  The smallest identifiable unit found in a stream of speech.  Pronounced in a defined way.  Represented between brackets [ ] ; generally include detailed information [ph] [p'].
  14. Syllabic Consonant
    A consonant which takes the role of a vowel: chism
  15. English Diphthongs
    • /ai/ buy
    • /au/ cow
    • /ɔi/ toy
    • /ei/ hate
    • /ou/ coat-on stressed syllable or at end of a word
  16. Open Syllable
    A syllable that ends with a vowel phoneme (No Coda).
  17. Closed Syllable
    A syllable that ends with a consonant phoneme (Coda).
  18. Vocal Tract
    Nostril, nasal cavity, lips, teeth, oral cavity, alveolar ridge, hard palate, soft palate (velum), uvula, tongue (tip/apex, front back/dorsum, blade, back, root), pharynx, epiglottis, larynx vocal folds, glottis, trachea.
  19. Vowels
    • [i] [i:]                 ?            [u]
    •           [I]                               [ʊ]

    • [e] [eI]         [ɝ] [ɚ]          [o] [oʊ]

    • [ε]                    [ʌ] [ə]      [ɔ]

    [æ]                         [a]            [α]
  20. [i]
    tense high front unrounded

    fleet, we, creek
  21. [I]
    • lax high front unrounded

    • flit, listen, whittle
  22. [i:]
    elongated diphthonized - in open and stressed syllables
  23. [u]
    tense high-back rounded

    chew, clue, strewn
  24. [ʊ]
    • lax high back rounded

    • could, should, bull, took
  25. [e]
    tense high-mid front unrounded - in unstressed syllable

    phonate, mandate, rotate
  26. [eI]
    high-mid front - in stressed syllable or at end of word

    away, toupee, create, table
  27. [æ]
    • lax low front unrounded

    • trash, thank, jazz, stand
  28. [ε]
    • lax low-mid front unrounded

    • met, relish, terror, where
  29. [ɝ]
    • rhotacized tense mid central  rounded - occurs only in stressed syllables

    • rehearse, service, percolate
  30. [ɚ]
    • rhotacized schwa, lax mid central rounded - occurs only in unstresssed syllables

    • pertain, surround, runner, treasure
  31. [ə]
    schwa, lax mid central unrounded

    astound, ransom, tuna, command
  32. [ʌ]
    • lax low-mid back central unrounded

    • rub, trouble, button
  33. [o]
    tense high-mid back rounded - in unstressed syllables

    bodacious, croatian
  34. [oʊ]
    in stressed syllable, or ou is at end of word

    bellow, flow
  35. [ɔ]
    • tense low-mid back rounded

    • all, prawn, caught, Dawn
  36. [æ]
    • lax low front unrounded

    • trash, thank, jazz, stand
  37. [a]
    lax low central

    cot - pronounced with Boston accent
  38. [α]
    tense low back unrounded

    • rotten, ostrich, father
  39. ð
    • voiced dental fricative

    • math, thank, breath
  40. ʤ
    • voiced alveolarpalatal affricate

    • judge
  41. θ
    • voiceless interdental fricative

    • math, thank, breath
  42. ʃ
    • voiceless alveolarpalatal fricative

    • shoe
  43. f
    voiceless labiodental fricative
  44. v
    voiced labiodental fricative
  45. s
    voiceless alveolar fricative
  46. z
    voiced alveolar fricative
  47. ʒ
    voiced alveopalatal fricative

  48. h
    voiceless glottal - only in initial position

  49. ʔ
    voiceless glottal found as an allophone of /t/, usually unreleased
  50. Fricatives = 9
    An uncountable continuous sound:  sssss, zzzzzz

    • f, v, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, h
  51. Affricates = 2
    A combination of a stop and a fricative:  starts at a stop and ends at a fricative.

    • ʧ, ʤ
  52. Stops = 6 + 1
    • p, b, t, d, k, g, ʔ
  53. Consonant Manner of Articulation
    • Stops
    • Fricatives
    • Affricates
    • Nasals
    • Liquids
    • Glides
  54. Stop Manner of Articulation
    complete obstruction of outgoing air by articulators, buildup of pressure, release:  p, b, t, d, k, g
  55. Fricative Manner of Articulation
    • forcing breath stream through constriction formed by articulators in the vocal tract: 
    • f, v, th, th, s, z, sh, j, h
  56. Affricate Manner of Articulation
    have both a fricative and stop manner of production:

    ʧ, ʤ
  57. Nasal Manner of Articulation
    complete closure in oral cavity and lowered velum to allow airflow through nasal cavity:  all voiced  (m, n, ng)
  58. Liquid Manner of Articulation
    generic label used to classify two English approximant consonants - both voiced:

    r, l
  59. Glide Manner of Articulation
    continuous gliding motion of articulators into the vowel which follows, also referred to a semi-vowel:

    j, w
  60. Places of Articulation = 7
    • Bilabial
    • Labio-dental
    • Lingua-dental
    • Lingua-alveolar
    • Lingua-palatal
    • Lingua-velar
    • Glottal
  61. Bilabial
    • Voiceless:  p     - stop
    •                  m    - nasal
    •                  w     - glide

    Voiced:  b - stop
  62. Labio-Dental
    f, v - fricatives
  63. Lingua-Dental
    th, th - fricatives
  64. Lingua-Alveolar
    • Voiceless:  t - stop
    •                  s - fricative
    •                  ʧ-affricate

    • Voiced:      d - stop
    •                  z - fricative
    •                  ʤ -affricate
    •                  n - nasal
    •                   l - liquid
  65. Lingua-Palatal
    Voiceless:  ʃ - fricative

    Voiced:  ʒ - fricative
  66. Lingua-Velar
    • Voiceless:  k - stop
    • Voiced:      g - stop
    •                 ng - nasal
  67. Glottal
    Voiced:  h - fricative
  68. Voiced Consonants
    • Stops - b, d g
    • Fricatives - v, ð, z, ʒ
    • Affricates - ʤ
    • Nasals - m, n ng
    • Liquids - w, j
  69. Voiceless Consonants
    Stops - p, t, k

    Fricatives - f, θ, s, ʃ, h

    • Affricate - ʧ
Card Set:
2013-10-15 03:32:16

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