Geol 1303

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238675
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Geol 1303
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2013-10-03 23:44:36
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Units 4 & 5
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  1. Approximately what percentage of Earth’s surface is covered with oceans?
    71%
  2. Name all of the world’s oceans.
  3. Compare the relative sizes (1/2 or 1/10th etc.) of the other oceans with the Pacific Ocean.
  4. A cubic foot of sea water contains how many pounds of dissolved salt?
  5. One cubic foot of FRESH water usually contains about a ____ of dissolved salts.
  6. Which units are common used to define salt water salinity? (Hint - parts per ????)
  7. Average ocean salinity is about: ______
  8. Name three (3) minerals that can be derived by evaporating sea water.
  9. What is an estuary? Name at least one local example. ALWAYS ON EXAMS
  10. Describe the average relative salinity of Copano Bay (i.e. brackish, average seawater, hypersaline)
  11. We can find brackish water in water wells and sea water. Define brackish water?
  12. 11. Sometime seawater can become hypersaline. Define hypersaline seawater.
  13. 12. Discuss the average relative salinity of Nueces Bay. (i.e. brackish, average seawater, hypersaline)
  14. Discuss the average relative salinity of Corpus Christi Bay. (i.e. brackish, average seawater, hypersaline)
  15. Discuss the average relative salinity seawater of Laguna Madre.
  16. Define the components (parts) of a wave including: crest, trough, height, period (a drawing helps)
  17. Describe how a particle of water actually moves (motion) within a wave that is not next to shore.
  18. What is a wave base, in regards to wave energy? i.e. - If you want to scuba in calm water, you need to get below the wave base. How do we estimate the depth of a wave base?
  19. What happens to a wave when its wave base “hits” the sea floor? (Does the wave get higher or lower?)
  20. Simply define what a breakeris.
  21. Discuss the type of sea floor associated with a spilling breaker and a plunging breaker (drawings help)
  22. Discuss the usual affects of a surging breaker on a beach (in regards to erosion).
  23. What are rogue waves and how are they created?
  24. What are the three types of wave-generated currents are found near the beach?
  25. How do waves generate longshore currents and what direction do these longshore currents move(relative to the shoreline)?
  26. When do longshore currents become rip currents (i.e. where do rip tides exit?
  27. How can you escape from a rip current?
  28. Why would surferslook for rip currents?
  29. Describe the formation of undertows and to whom are they most dangerous?
  30. What caused high tides and low tides?
  31. Interpret a tide graph and define the following: high tide, low tide, ebb tide and flood tide (see study guide page 5)
  32. High tides do not occur at the same time every day. How much later each day would you expect to find the next high tide?
  33. Which sun-moon alignment causes the spring tides that we experience twice every month?
  34. Which sun-moon alignment causes the neap tides that we experience twice every month?
  35. Examine a moon-Earth-Sun sketch to determine if it demonstrates a spring tide or a neap tide (see study guide sketches pages 5 and 6).
  36. How variable are the high tides and low tides for Corpus Christi during a typical month?)
  37. Interpret the tidal chart sketch of tides for two months for Corpus Christi (i.e. – be able to label the new moon tides and full moon tides and neap tides)
  38. What is a Proxigean Spring Tide and how often does it occur?
  39. What is an extreme Proxigean Spring Tide and how often does it occur?
  40. Where in North America do the most extreme daily tides occur? (Bay of ????)
  41. How can normal tides affect storm surge waves? (Can they increase the height of the wave?)
  42. How is a flood tide delta created?
  43. What is the name of a local flood tide delta?
  44. What is a Eustatic sea level?
  45. What is a drowned valley?
  46. What is the probable effect of rising sea level on our barrier islands?
  47. What definesthe differences between a passive margin coast and a convergent coast (i.e. -types of tectonic features)
  48. Describe the affects of rising sea level on a passive margin coast.

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