Chem 010 Exam #1 Review

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Chem 010 Exam #1 Review
2013-10-04 00:18:06

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  1. s orbital models
  2. p orbital models
  3. d orbital models
  4. Blackbody radiation
    Emission of light from hot objects
  5. Photoelectric effect
    Emission of e-s from metal surfaces on which light shines
  6. Emission spectra
    Emission of light from electronically excited gas atoms
  7. What does the Rydberg equation do?
    Allows us to calculate wavelengths of all spectral lines of hydrogen
  8. Limitations of the Bohr Model
    • Electrons exist only in certain discrete energy levels (quantum numbers)
    • Energy is involved in transition of electron from one level to another
  9. Uncertainty principle
    Impossible to know simultaneously both exact momentum of e- and exact location in space
  10. What does square of wave fxn at given point tell us?
    Probability that e- will be found at that location
  11. Principal quantum number (n)
    Can have positive integral values
  12. Second quantum number (l)
    • Can have integral values from 0 to n-1 for each value of n
    • Shape of orbital
  13. Magnetic quantum number ()
    Can have integral values between -l and l, including 0
  14. Order of wavelength from short to long:
    Gamma rays, X-rays, UV, Visible, Infrared, Microwaves, Radio frequency
  15. Bohr assumptions:
    • Electrons of H are confined to orbits
    • Allowed orbits are well defined
    • Can move between orbital by absorbing or emittin gphotons
  16. 3 Notes on the Bohr Model
    • Lowest E occurs at n =1, also shortest radius
    • As n gets larger, so does E, and the radius
    • E = 0, n = infinity
  17. Pauli Exclusion Principle
    No two electrons in an atom can have the same 4 quantum numbers
  18. General orbital order
    1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p
  19. Principle quantum number for s-p block
    Row #
  20. Principle quantum number for d block
    Row # - 1
  21. Principle quantum number for f block
    Row # - 2
  22. Hund's Rule
    • For orbitals with same E, lowest E has most unpaired, parallel e-
    • Exceptions - metals in d/f block E4s ~ E3d
  23. Atomic size
    • Inc from top to bottom, right to left
    • Francium has highest atomic size
  24. Effective Nuclear Charge (Z eff)
    • Z eff = Z - S
    • Z - nuclear charge (# of protons)
    • S - shielding constant (# of electrons in last noble gas)
    • As Z eff inc., force on e- inc. and pulls e- closer
  25. Ionization Energy
    • Energy req. to remove 1 electron from 1 mol of a substance
    • Inc. across period, bottom to topĀ 
    • Fluorine has highest IE
    • Exceptions: Be and B
  26. Electron Affinity
    • Energy req. to add e-
    • Gets more negative left to right (except noble gases)
  27. Metal Characteristics
    • Solids (other than mercury)
    • Shiny
    • Good conductors of elect. and heat
    • Low IE
    • Form cations (+)
  28. Non-metal Characteristics
    • Many are gases
    • Insulators (electricity and heat)
    • High IE
    • Tend to form anions (-)
  29. Noble gas Characteristics
  30. Metalloids
    • Grey area between metal and non-metal
    • Share properties of both
  31. Ionic Characteristics
    • Metal and non-metal - ionic
    • High melting point
    • Crystalline
    • Tend to release ions when in water
  32. Electronegativity trends
    • Ability of atom to pull e-s towards itself
    • Inc from left to right, bottom to top
    • Fluorine has highest EN
  33. Exceptions to Octet Rule
    • Electron-deficient molecules - Be, B, Al
    • Only 3 row or below for expanded octet
  34. Dipole moment
    Measure charge symm. or polarity
  35. Diatonics
    Change in EN is all that is needed to determine dipole moment

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