FAID

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Robren
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238707
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FAID
Updated:
2013-10-15 12:04:04
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Recurrent
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  1. 6.16.1

              UNCONSCIOUSNESS
    • - PERFORM EXAMINATION
    • DRABCDE
    • OXYGEN
    • TREAT CAUSE 
    • RECOVERY POSITION
  2. 6.16.2

               CHOKING
    • ADULT: are you choking? 
    • mild? Encourage to cough
    • severe? Conscious? 5 back blows - 5 abdominal thrusts / maybe relaxation of larynx
    •            Unconscious? CPR
    • CHILD: same
    • INFANT: 5 back blows - five CHEST thrusts, more slowly then CPR, 20 p/min
    •           Unconscious: - flat surface +visual check
    • 5 rescue breaths: no response CPR 30:2 for 1 min before calling for help
  3. 6.16.3

             SHOCK
    • Causes: reduced pressure / bleeding, vomiting,
    •             Burns, diarrhoea/ affected nerves

    • pale, cold clammy skin
    • rapid, weak pulse
    • rapid, shallow breathing
    • extreme thirst
    • disorientation, confusion, altering level consciousness
    • airhunger
    • nausea

    • DRABCDE
    • OXYGEN
    • Loosen clothes, keep warm, leg raised
    • treat cause
    • nothing to eat/ drink
    • inorm cpt doctor
  4. 6.16.4

            FAINTING
    • Pale, cold, clammy skin
    • Dizzy 
    • Nausea
    • Brief loss of consciousness

    • DRABCDE
    • lay flat, legs raised
    • slowly sit or stand
    • Oxygen if still dizzy +doctor
    • if more than few seconds : treat as unconscious
  5. 6.16.5

            ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK
    Hypersensitivity to substance, freeing large cuantity of histamine.

    • Red blotchy skin rash
    • Rapid weak pulse
    • Altering level of consciousness
    • Noisy breathing (weezing)Tightening of chest
    • Swelling of the upper body

    • DRABCDE
    • PA for doctor 
    • Epipen for Adrenaline
    • Oxygen
    • comfortable position if breathing difficulties
    • flat if in shock legs raised
    • keep warm
  6. 6.16.6

             HEART ATTACK
    • Use sample
    • Severe,crushing, vice like central chest pain which can radiate to both arms( most commonly the left)jaw,neck,back and upper abdomen
    • Older casualties may have little or no pain
    • Difficulty in breathing
    • Cold,clammy,ashen grey colour skin
    • Anxiety
    • Nausea
    • Tingling in the fingers

    • DRABCDE
    • OXYGEN
    • SIT/Half sit position
    • Calm and reassure
    • Monitor, PMRF
    • CPT / doctor +divert
  7. 6.16.7

            ANGINA
    Insufficient blood flow

    • Central chest pain radiating to both arms,back,jaw,neck
    • Tight feeling in the chest
    • Pale colour
    • Shortness of breath
    • Weakness and numbness in arms and hands

    • DRABCDE
    • Oxygen
    • Calm and reassure
    • GTN glyceryl trinitate, 
    • improvement in 3 min if not suspect heart attack
  8. 6.16.8

          STROKE
    Sudden disruption of brains blood supply

    • Headache
    • Flushed,warm skin
    • Numbness, weakness or paralysis on one side
    • Drooling
    • Loss of bladder and bowel control
    • Altering level of consciousness
    • Vomiting and incontinence
    • Visual disturbance 
    • Pupils unequal in size
    • Irregular breathing and slow bounding pulse
    • FAST Test
    • Face: smile? Facial paralysis?
    • Arms: can raise both arms?
    • Speech: slurred?
    • Time to call a doctor

    • DRABCDE
    • Oxygen
    • comfortable position/ semi sit
    • if unconscious: recovery position
    • Reassure and keep warm
    • Inform Cpt/ call doctor
  9. 6.16.9

             ASTHMA
    Spasm, swelling, inflammation, partial blockage of lower respiratory tract

    • Increased Effort in breathing using shoulder/ neck muscles, over inflation of the chest
    • Breathing rate over 25 p/min
    • Rapid Pulse over 110 p/min
    • Wheezing on expiration 
    • Inability to speak a sentence in one breath
    • Central cyanosis 
    • Restlessness, drowsiness, confusion

    • DRABCDE
    • Oxygen
    • Calm and reassure
    • Sit forwards, Arms raised
    • Use inhaler
    • Inform Cpt seek medical assistance
  10. 6.16.10

           HYPERVENTILATION
    Over breathing due to anxiety or stress OR result of shock,diabetes,asthma,head/spinal injury

    • Increased breathing rate
    • Tingling in hands and feet
    • Agitation
    • Claw like hands
    • Flushed face
    • Light headed dizzyness

    • DRABCDE
    • Calm and reassure
    • Instruct pax to relax and to slow down breathing
    • Encourage to speak
    • IF cause is not anxiety give Oxygen
    • inform cpt seek medical assistance
  11. 6.16.11

    HYPOGLYCAEMIA
    Pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin to regulate sugar level in blood

    • Hunger and Headache
    • Pale clammy skin
    • possible seizures and coma
    • Confusion and disorientation
    • Rapid breathing 
    • Rapid pulse
    • Drunklike

    • DRABCDE
    • Calm and reassure
    • Glucose immediately, sweet food, suggary non fizzy drinks, Glucogel afterwards Carbohydrates 
    • if not treated promptly: unconscious and then nothing by mouth
  12. 6.16.11

    HYPERGLYCAEMIA
    • Extreme thirst
    • Lethargy and drowsiness
    • Skin warm and dry
    • Rapid pulse
    • Sweet smelling breath
    • possible coma 

    • DRABCDE
    • calm reassure
    • non sugary drinks
    • own Insulin
    • if not sure hypo hyper: give glucose
    • inform Cpt seek medical assistance
  13. 6.16.12

    EPILEPSY -minor
    • Sample
    • Blank look and stare
    • Blinking of eyes
    • Lip smacking
    • Strange sensations
    • Plucking of clothes
    • Twitching of limbs

    • Seat away from danger
    • Speak gently and calm
    • if conscious and seated, fasten seatbelt loosely
    • support and protect head, make comfortable
    • move hazards away
    • Stay and reassure afterwards
  14. 6.16.12

    EPILEPSY-mayor
    • Pax becomes tonic and clonic:rigid,falls and has jerking movement
    • Breathing is slow
    • may cyanosed and salivate
    • incontinence 
    • Convulsions lasts few min,falls into deep sleep

    • DRABCDE
    • Loose tight clothing
    • remove spectacles
    • if seated, fasten belt loosely
    • protect from danger
    • OXYGEN - fit is over 5 min
    •              - fit more than 2 than usual
    •              - hypoxia
    • If unconscious put in recovery position and maintain clear airway, but if still seated it may be safer and easier to maintain airway seated.
    • Seek Medical Assistance if:
    • - it's first seizure
    • - more than 2 min than usual or over 5 min
    • -recurrent seizures
    • -if injured 
    • - if breathing difficulties
  15. 6.16.13

    INFANTILE CONVULSIONS
    • High temperature due to overheating or infection
    • SAMPLE
    • Hot flushed face
    • Stiffness, jerking of body and limbs
    • Abnormal eye movements
    • Breath holding
    • Drooling of the mouth

    • DRABCDE
    • Rmove all clothing
    • Move to cool area
    • calm reassure parents
    • Inform Cpt and seek medical assistance
  16. 6.17.1

    HEPATITIS B / C
    Serious liver infection caused by unprotected sex or intravenous drug use

    • Fatigue
    • Fever
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Abdominal pain
    • Diarrhoea
    • JAUNDICE, yellow skin
    • Dark urine

    DRABCDE
  17. 6.17.2

    CHICKENPOX
    highly contagious blisters through contact, travel after 7 days Last Spot

    • DRABCDE
    • Fever
    • Headache
    • Small, itchy, Red spots becoming fluid filled blisters
  18. 6.17.3

    MEASLES
    • Infectious period before signs and symptoms 
    • travel 7 days after Rash
    • Cough
    • Running nose
    • Fever
    • Red, small spots that may discharge
    • after a few days: Rash around ear and neck, covering body

    DRABCDE
  19. 6.17.4

    TUBERCULOSIS
    Lung disease, prolonged breathing in bacteria 

    • Coughing, more than 3 weeks than with blood
    • Fever
    • Night sweats
    • Weight loss
    • Fatigue
    • DRABCDE
  20. 6.17.5

    MALARIA
    Prevention is best: mosquitoes: repellent,long sleeves, trousers, drugs

    • Fever, in periods
    • Headache
    • Flu like symptoms
    • Shivers
    • Sweating

    • recurs over months or years
    • DRABCDE
  21. 6.17.6

    BACTERIAL MENINGITIS
    • Fever
    • Headache (baby,tenderness soft part skull)
    • Vomiting or loss appetite
    • Sensitivity to the light
    • Stiffness in the neck
    • Red,purpuric spots(Purpuric rash)stays wthglass
    • worse in child with recent infection
    • Convulsions
    • DRABCDE
  22. 6.18.1

    DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS
    • Blood clot in vein due to slow blood flow caused by long sitting
    • PREVENT: rotate ancle, avoid alcohol,caffeine, hydrate,walk, extend and flex feet

    • pain, cramping  in calf
    • swelling, hot, hard, tenderness,
    • Do not walk nor rub calf, slightly Elevate leg, Hydrate and inform Cpt

    • if clot goes to lung:
    • difficulty in breathing
    • coughing vlood
    • signs of shock
    • DRABCDE
    • TREAT AS FOR SHOCK
    • inform Cpt and seek medical assistance
  23. 6.19.1

    DIARRHOEA
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Abdominal pain
    • Loose stools

    • sips of water
    • starchy food, non diary products
  24. 6.19.2

    APPENDICITIS
    • Abdominal pain and cramping
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • High temperature
    • pain from navel to Lower Right Abdomen

    • NOTHING by mouth
    • Urgent Medical help
  25. 6.19.3

    RENAL COLIC
    kidney stones
    Severe abdominal pain radiating from back/ hip to Left or Right lower Abdomen and groin

    • sips of water
    • doctor for pain relief
  26. 6.19.4

    GASTIC ULCER
    • gastric ulcer is an open wound in the stomach.
    • Ulcer in stomach or deodenum are both Peptic ulcer.

    Burning, yawning sensation : Morning, before meals, Stressfull periods

    Perforated Gastric Ulcer: vomites  coffee ground like substance. Treat as for shock, seek medical assistance
  27. 6.20

    ECTOPIC PREGNANCY
    • Severe abdominal pain, cramp like stabbing 
    • Pain may locate to one side
    • May radiate to shoulder tip
    • vaginal bleeding, dark brown prune like
    • High temperature 
    • shock

    • treat as for shock
    • potentially fatal
  28. 6.21

    EXPECTANT MOTHERS
    No need for certificates

    • up to end 35th week for single pregnancies
    • up to 32nd when expecting more
  29. 6.22

    EMERGENCY CHILD BIRTH
    • First stage: neck of womb opens
    • contractions
    • mucus plug 
    • amniotic fluid
    •   calm and reassure, doctor
    • must sit or kneel 
    • deep breaths
    • massage lower back
    • wipe cool face , sips of water

    • Second Stage: Baby born
    • urge to push
    • stretching of birth canal
    • head emerges, delivery soon
    •   Clean surroundings/ wash hands
    • remove restrictive clothing
    • sit upright, cover mother
    • Panting when crowning
    • Clean slippery baby, return to mother

    • Third Stage
    • contractions of uturus
    • afterbirth
    •    Calm reassure
    • do not cut the cord
    • keep cord and afterbirth in biohazard bag
    • Complications:
    • umbilical cord around neck, check if loose
    • bleeding or pain severe: treat as for shock
    • write CSR for births on board
  30. 6.23

    MISCARRIAGE
    • She knows she is pregnant
    • vaginal bleeding
    • lower abdominal pain, crumb like and stabbing
    • signs of shock if bleeding is severe

    • DRABCDE
    • calm, reassure
    • keep expelled material 
    • treat as for shock
    • captain and seek medical assistance
  31. 6.24.2

    ALCOHOL INTOXICATION
    • Sample
    • History of alcohol ingestion
    • Nausea 
    • vomiting
    • impaired level of consciousness
    • warm, flushed moist face
    • breathing, deep,and noisy
    • LATE SIGNS
    • shallow breathing
    • weak, rapid pulse
    • dilated pupils reacting poor to light
    • DRABCDE
    • Oxygen
    • unconscious- recovery position 
    • keep warm
    • inf Cpt seek medical assistance
  32. 6.24.1

    DRUG INTOXICATION
    • Sample
    • hyper active or drowsy and lethargy
    • Hallucinations
    • Breathing rapid or slow
    • pupils dilated or restricted
    • DRABCDE
    • Oxygen
    • identify drugs
    • keep vomited material or containers
    • keep warm
    • inf Cpt seek medical assistance
  33. 6.25.1

    MINOR WOUNDS
    • Wash hands, gloves
    • clean wound
    • sterile dressing and secure
    • send to doctor(tetanus)
  34. 6.25.1

    MAYOR WOUNDS
    • Head injury
    • spinal injury
    • chest injury
    • abdominal injury
    • injuries to muscle or skeleton
    • eye injury
  35. 6.25.2

    TYPES OF BLEEDING
    Arterial: bright red, oxygenated, spurts out, hard to control,fatal if not treated promptly

    Venous: dark red, deoxygenated, less pressure, flows out, easier to control, can be serious

    Capillary: bright red, oxygenated, oozes out. Not life threatening
  36. 6.25.2

    TREATMENT OF MINOR BLEEDING
    • wash hand and use gloves
    • rest casualty
    • direct pressure
    • elevate inured part
    • remove restrictive clothing /jewellery 
    • LEAVE foreign object and built padding around, then cover it
  37. 6.25.2

    TREATMENT FOR SEVERE EXTERNAL BLEEDING
    • Wash hands, gloves
    • lay casualty flat, legs raised
    • apply direct pressure
    • lift injured part above level of heart
    • secure dressing with bandage, if soaked, use another, if soaked,remove and repeat
    • inform cpt and seek medical assistance

    PRESSURE POINTS, if direct pressure not possible(10min)
  38. 6.25.2

    INTERNAL BLEEDING
    • History of injury or medical illness
    • bruises or discoloured skin
    • pain and tenderness
    • signs of shock
    • Treat as for shock
  39. 6.25.2

    BLEEDING: NOSE, MOUTH, EAR
    Nose: sit pax, lean forward, pinch nose 10 min, repeat, still bleeding seek medical advice

    mouth: sit pax, lean forward, bite sterile dressing or put pressure.12 hours no hot drinks, seek medical advice 

    Ear: lean affected area, apply sterile dressing, ( head injury, perforated eardrum)seek medical advice
  40. 6.25.3

    HEAD INJURY minor
    SAMPLE concussion

    • Mild headache
    • nausea
    • vomiting
    • dizziness and blurred vision 
    • loss of memory

    • DRABCDE
    • Oxygen
    • treat cause, suspect spinal injury
    • AVPU level of consciousness
    • Cpt and seek medical assistance
  41. 6.25.3

    HEAD INJURY major
    • Intense Headache
    • hot flushed face
    • visual disturbance
    • vomiting
    • blood from ear or nose
    • pupils unequal
    • irregular breathing
    • slow,strong pulse
    • deteriorating level of consciousness
    • brain injury: paralysis, slurred speech, confusion
  42. 6.25.4

    SPINAL INJURY
    • Pain in back and neck
    • muscle spasm in back and neck
    • Numbness,tingling, lack of movement in arms and feet
    • warm dry skin
    • slow pulse
    • breathing difficulties

    • DO NOT MOVE
    • DRABCDE
    • Oxygen
    • reassure and support head
    • inform Cpt and seek medical assistance
  43. 6.25.5

    CHEST INJURY :Pneumothorax
    • Chest pain
    • Breathing difficulties
    • blueness around mouth and lips
    • windpipe out of alignment 

    • DRABCDE 
    • Oxygen
    • treat as for shock
  44. 6.25.5

    CHEST INJURY Penetrating Chest Wound
    • Breathing difficulties
    • bubbling sounds/ moist sucking around wound
    • blueness lips and mouth


    • DRABCDE
    • Oxygen
    • cover wound airtight on 3 sides
    • treat as for shock 
    • inform Cpt seek medical assistance
  45. 6.25.6

    ABDOMINAL INJURY
    • Bruises, wounds, evisceration
    • Pain on touch / movement
    • late signs
    • Abdomen is swollen, rigid or distended
    • shock

    • DRABCDE
    • Oxygen
    • cover wound,with sterile damp dressing if intestines stick out
    • treat as for shock
    • cpt and seek medical assistance
  46. 6.25.7

    INJURIES TO MUSCLES AND SKELETON
    Types: fractures, dislocations, amputations,contusions,strains, sprains

    • pain on touch or movement
    • movement difficult/ limited
    • swelling, bruising
    • deformity of limb or joint
    • crepitus
  47. 6.25.8

    SPRAINS , STRAINS, FRACTURES

    Steching, tearingSprain- ligaments of bonesstrain- muscles
    • Pain and tenderness
    • difficulty in moving
    • Swelling and bruising

    • DRABCDE
    • RICE: rest, ice, compress, elevate
    • cpt ,medical assistance
  48. 6.25.8

    FRACTURE
    • Swelling, bruising, deformity
    • pain on touch or movement
    • Twisting, bending shortening of limb
    • Coarse grating of bones ends
    • bones protruding 
    • shock

    • DRABCDE
    • keep still
    • cover wound sterile dressing
    • SAMSPLINT
    • monitor circulation comparing with good leg
    • part amputated  in not direct ice
    • cpt, medical assistance

    • PRINCIPLES OF IMMOBILISATION 
    • Expose and Support injured part removing any constrictions
    • Immobilise appropriately, using slings, bandages and SAM splint
  49. 6.25.9

    SLING AND BANDAGES
    • Dressings:
    • control bleeding, protect, prevent infection

    Bandages: secure and support

    • Light woven thin bandages:
    • hold dressing in place
    • control bleeding

    • Thick elastic crepe bandages:
    • support and immobilise
    • give pressure, prevent swelling
    • control bleeding

    • key points using dressings:
    • Gloves, sterile dressing, hold on to the edges,
    • bandage towards the heart, covering half each turn, not to tight, check circulation
    • secure  

    • Elevation - high arm sling:
    • support lower arm, collarbone, shoulder 

    • Broad arm sling - low
    • upper arms or support dislocated shoulder
  50. 6.25.10

    EYE INJURY

    Foreign bodies
    chemical burn
    • history of eye injury
    • painful, red watering eyes
    • affected vision
    • foreign body or visible injury

    • Loose Foreign Body
    • wash hands, gloves ,eyewash, turn head to affected side
    • if penetrating seek medical advice

    • Chemical Burn
    • history, wash, gloves,immediately irrigate from nose outwards leaning affected side, Cpt and seek medical assistance.
  51. 6.26

    BURNS
    • First Degree: outer layer of the skin
    • redness, swelling and tenderness, pain, no medical assistance unless extensive
    • Fenistil Gel

    • Second Degree: Both layer of the skin
    • Looks raw, Blisters, looks like wet wound
    • if extensive can be serious
    • medical assistance required 
    • Burn Aid Dressing, water jel

    • Third degree: All layers
    • dull or pain free
    • dark and charred if fire
    • waxy grey by heat:steam etc
    • medical assistance
    • Jelonet
  52. 6.26

    Treatment Minor Burns
    • DRABCDE
    • Wash hands
    • gloves
    • cool with water
    • remove jewellery, clothing
    • sterile dressing
    • cpt and seek medical assistance
  53. 6.26

    Treatment Major Burns
    • DRABCDE
    • wash hands, gloves
    • away from danger
    • Stop burning process,neutralise cause
    • maintain open airway
    • Oxygen when burn affecting airway or hypoxia 
    • sterile dressing
    • look for other injuries, keep warm
    • cpt and seek medical assistance
  54. 6.26

    SMOKE INHALATION
    Suspect inhalation injury when burns on head, face, neck or chest

    • Breathing difficulties
    • horse voice
    • burns and swelling neck and face
    • signed nasal hair , eyebrows
    • soot around nose and mouth

    • DRABCDE
    • Oxygen
    • unresponsive- recovery position
    • cpt medical assistance
  55. 6.26

    CHEMICAL BURN
    • Protect yourself
    • immediate flush with water, clothes on!!!
    • continue till medical help arrives
    • identify chemical
  56. 6.26

    ELECTRICAL BURNS
    • Protect yourself
    • isolate electricity

    • Unconsciousness
    • convulsions
    • breathing, pulse may be absent
    • shock
    • third degree burns!!!!

    • DRABCDE
    • TREAT FOR MAJOR BURNS
    • Isolate electricity
    • prepare for CPR
  57. 6.27

    DEATH
    • Inform captain 
    • remove other pax, keep body straight
    • CSR
    • Time commander notified
    • time and place
    • name and address pax and companions
    • seat n0 row,total on board,
    • Name address medic who certified death
    • Full signs and symptoms
    • details treatment and action taken
  58. 6.28.1

    Air sickness
    • Headache
    • dizzy
    • nausea and vomiting 
    • clammy , pale
    • hyperventilation

    • move pax fwd cabin
    • minimize head movement, no reading
    • no alcohol, restrict fluids(sips)
    • airvents open
    • stugeron
  59. 6.28.2

    FLATUS
    • discomfort, pain in chest or upper abdomen
    • abdominal distension 

    • loosen tight clothing
    • sips of sparkling water
    • restrict alcohol
    • Asilone
  60. 6.28.3

    PANICK ATTACK
    • Attention seeking
    • marked tremor or paralysis 
    • Hyperventilation

    • Be firm
    • move to quiet place
    • stay with pax 
    • NO water, slapping,restrain
  61. 6.28.4

    EARACHE
    having a cold, virus infection or sore throat

    • Swallow or yawn
    • pinch nose and etc
    • Karvol
    • feed if baby
  62. 6.28.5

    TOOTHACHE
    • Comfort pax
    • warm pad against affected area
  63. 6.28.6

    SORE/INFLAMED THROAT
    • Plenty of fluids
    • throat lozenges ( merocets,strepsils)
  64. 6.28.7

    CRAMP
    • Foot: stand on front foot
    •          Massage foot after first spasm

    calf: straighten knee, foot upwards, massage

    • thigh, back: straighten knee, raising leg
    •          Front: bend knee 
    •          Massage both
  65. 6.29

    FIRST AID KITS
    • Ammonia inhalants 
    • Asilone tablets >12yrs
    • Cooljel (fenistel Cm kit)
    • Waterjel dressing
    • Jelonet dressing
    • Karvol capsules 
    • Otrivine nasal spray
    • Glucogel
    • Merocets, strepsils, lozenges
    • Paracetamol not <6yrs,0,5-1 <12, 1-2 >12
    • emergency eye wash
    • Sting relief wipes
    • Stugeron 1>5-12yrs


    • Antiseptic towelettes
    • Bandage combo pack
    • Crepe bandage
    • Ex large adhesive bandage
    • Triangular bandage
    • Self adherent wrap
    • Skintact
    • small wound dressing
    • sterile gauze swabs
    • Steri strips, closing wounds
    • White open weave bandage
    • Eye pads and strips
    • Micropore tape
    • Biohazard bag
    • Medical gloves
    • Safety pins
    • Pocket mask
    • Sam splint
    • Scissors
    • Seals

    • contents list fr,en,sp
    • duplicated drug usage form
    • Min max quantity list
    • Ground to air visual signal codes
    • Print out of kit contents
    • Summary sheet of oral Medicines(fr,en,sp)
  66. 6.29.1

    SCCM FIRST AID KIT
    • Dafalgan-paracetamol: 4-8 hours
    •               6-9yrs (22-30kg) 1tablet max 3
    •               9-12 (30-40) max 4
    •               12-    Over 40kg max 8
    • fenistil gel 1st degree burns, insect bites etc
    • pulmex
    • physiological serum
    • plasters
    • merfen disinfectant spray, older 2 yrs not on pregnant pax
  67. 6.30
    PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF FLYING
    Atmosphere

    troposphere : 25000ft-60000ft 2C° per 1000ft till -56C°

    tropopause 36000ft

    stratosphere: -56C° , no vertical convections

    Air: 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen 1% other gas
  68. 6.36

    DECOMPRESSION ILLNESS
    • Head: vertigo, poor balance, confusion,nausea, fatigue, unconsciousness
    • chest and body: skin rash
    • spine: abdominal pain,, loss of bladder control, paralysis
    • fingers and feet: tingling, pins and needles
    • knees,shoulders,elbows: joint pain
    • signs of shock
    • when,where,depth and duration

    • DRABCDE 
    • Oxygen
    • lie flat
    • no moving if joint pain, no alcohol
    • Medical help 
    • Cpt to Increase cabin pressure
    • ask for HYPERBARIC Oxygen Therapy
  69. 6.37.1

    FROSTBITE
    • Face, nose, ears, hands and feet.
    • no tight clothing, out of wind,keep moving and dry.
    • white or creamy patches on the skin, hard
    • - place affected area in warm area: arm pits, other hands, take hot drink, cover blisters with dressing

    • DO NOT:
    • direct heat
    • burst blisters
    • Rub frost-bitten areas
    • warm area too quick( in hot water, near fire)
  70. 6.37.2

    HYPOTHERMIA
    Core body temperature drops and so cooled by exposure

    Feels cold, tiredness, shivering, difficulty in responding

    Protect from the elements and insulate with more clothing: shared body temperature. Hot sweet drink
  71. 6.37.3

    SNOW BLINDNESS
    Bright light on snow

    Temporary blindness and painful eyes

    rest eyes in darkness, blindfold
  72. 6.37.4

    HEAT CRAMP
    Heat exhaustion due to lack of body salt often caused by perspiring 

    • cramping of muscles, arms, legs, abdomen
    • dizziness, vomiting, shallow breathing

    shade, drink + salt ( small teaspoon per 0,5ltr)
  73. 6.37.5

    HEAT EXHAUSTION
    More sever case of heat cramp

    • pale face
    • cold skin and perspiring
    • nausea,dizziness 
    • general weakness 
    • Cramping of muscles
    • weak pulse
    • may become delirious and unconscious

    shade, give drink and add salt
  74. 6.37.6 

    HEAT STROKE
    over exposure to the sun

    • Dizziness
    • flushed face
    • feverish
    • temperature rises
    • rapid bounding pulse
    • unconscious may follow 

    • Shade
    • head and shoulders slightly raised
    • remove outer clothing and cool body by wetting underclothing and fanning 
    • make a sun awning+ ventilation
    • give a drink+ salt
  75. 7.2

    SEARCH & RESCUE PROCEDURES
    RCC: rescue coordination centre
    3 phases:

    • Uncertainty phase:no contact within 10 min 
    • Alert Phase : 20 min
    • Distress Phase : 30 min
  76. 7.3

    SURVIVAL
    Survival depends on:

    • Will
    • Knowledge: equipment, survival techniques
    • identify pax, doctors, abp's, delegate
  77. 7.3.1

    PREPARATION FOR SURVIVAL
    If it's known landing is in remote area:

    • pax should put on more clothes
    • be hydrated, give a drink
    • Stress out in Ditching : put Lifejacket on
  78. 7.3.2

    PRINCIPLE METHODS OF SURVIVAL
    • Evacuate upwind, at safe distance
    • find shelter from elements
    • prioritise casualties and give FAID
    • Light a fire
    • Return to a/c when safe( leave one slide attached to be able to return)
  79. 7.3.3

    4 priorities of Survival
    • Protection
    • Location
    • Water
    • Food
  80. 7.3.3.1

    PROTECTION
    Warm,dry: 

    • Shelter from the elements
    • feel well and have will to survive 
    • use equipment from a/c

    • Fire
    • for warmth, signalling, cooking, wildlife and insects away, dry clothes
    • use kerosine for Lamp
    • get sparks from battery

    • clothing
    • think: ex, better lightly dressed in heat for protection from sun and insects
  81. 7.3.3.2

    LOCATION
    • Stay in a group, if going: min 3
    • Remain at rescue site unless necessary to go 
    • Rescue symbols 2,5 mtrs min
    • V= requiere assistance
    • X= require medical assistance
    • Y= yes
    • N= no
    • Attract attention with:
    • ELT, torch,wave flag, mirror, whistle
    • 3 fires= distress signal

    RCC Plane rocking wings or flashing lights means they understand!
  82. 7.3.3.3

    WATER
    • Most urgent: 
    • Dehydration: nausea, headache, dark urine
    • ration water even when being seen.
    • water: from a/c, rainfall, streams, dry stream beds, morning dew. Look for animal tracks.
    • use life jacket as containers. No alcohol, boil water, add salt. No seawater nor urine.
  83. 7.3.3.4

    FOOD
    • Survival possible for weeks
    • no food for first 24h
    • give sick first
    • use fresh food first
    • Avoid brightly coloured plants and milky sap
    • don't eat fungi
  84. 7.4

    WATER SURVIVAL
    • Priorities : Visibility and avoid Hypothermia
    • instruct pax to put on many clothes
    • ensure inflation equipment is activated on leaving a/c 
    • keep safe distance from a/c
    • maintain in circle and foetal position 
    • restrict movements, just fingers and feet
    • crew together in big circle
    • cramp is worst enemy: ensure slow, controlled breathing 
    • encourage pax to pee within 2 hours avoiding kidney infection
    • Be careful for sharp a/c pieces
    • use spare flotation aids to keep material
    • Tie ELT to crew
    • put life cots in the middle
    • release dead pax and don't enter ditched a/c
  85. 7.4.2

    WINTER/POLAR/ARTIC SURVIVAL
    • Risk of hypothermia
    • use a/c parts for protection
    • Not a/c itself as it's a fridge
    • Cold: difficult to think: shelter/ holes to keep warm
    • inflate flotation aids for protection, insulate or protect children
    • Protect hands, feet and ears
    • Fire: Smoke, warmth, hot drinks
    • get any food from a/c
    • heat ice( not snow) to get water
    • regulate sweating as moisture reduces insulation and conducts heat
  86. 7.4.3

    SUMMER/DESSERT SURVIVAL
    • Keep in shade, thin layer of clothing to cover everything especially at night
    • protect head and back of neck: Arab head dress
    • Fire for visibility, insects( camel dung)
    • protect eyes, shake clothes before putting on
    • work at night, a/c can be burning hot
    • use slides for shelter, sun cream
  87. 7.5

    SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT
    • ELT
    • torch
    • mirror
    • whistle:six short blasts,min silence,6 short blast
    • FAID KITS
    • Mobile phones
    • flotation Aids: attention, carry water, store, protect
    • Hi-Vi vests
  88. 7.6.1

    SPECIFIC FAID CONSIDERATIONS
    • Frostbite 
    • Hypothermia
    • Snow blindness 
    • Heat cramp
    • Heat Exhaustion
    • Sunstroke
  89. 7.6.3

    DISPOSAL OF THE DECEASED
    • Remove bodies and bury away from water source
    • shallow graves cover with branches and leaves
    • Mark the Area for later recovery
    • Keep personal items safe

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