RAD-128 CH.5 Infection Control

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anatomy12
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RAD-128 CH.5 Infection Control
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2013-10-26 15:16:48
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  1. what are nosocomial infections
    Infections acquired at the HOSPITAL or other medical care institutions during the course of care
  2. what is an iatrogenic infection
    A nosocomial infection that results from a particular treatment or therapeutic procedure
  3. what is community acquired infection
    a person who enters the health care facility with an infection
  4. what are the natural microorganisms in every humans body
    flora
  5. what is it called when an infection is caused by microorganisms that are not normal flora
    exogenous nosocomial infections
  6. what is an infection caused by the overgrowth of normal flora
    • endogenous nosocomial infection
    • it can be caused by normal flora into another in placement of normal flora into another body cavity or the result of broad spectrum antimicrobial drugs
  7. what are the four factors that encourage nosocomial infections
    • environmental - air, sick pts. visitors, hospital personnel, contaminated food and equipment
    • therapeutic regimen - Immunosuppressive and cytotoxic drugs used to treat malignant or chronic diseases, which decrease the patient’s resistance to infection
    • equipment - catheters, ng, iv tubes, respiratory therapy equipment that have not been properly sterilized
    • contamination during medical procedures - any procedure can produce infective organisms if the correct technique is not used
  8. what are some factors that increase the potential for nosocomial infections
    • Age
    • Heredity
    • Nutritional Status
    • Stress
    • Inadequate rest exercise
    • Personal habits
    • Health history
    • Inadequate defenses
  9. what are the common sites on the body for nosocomial infections
    • urinary tract infections
    • surgical wounds
    • VAD
    • respiratory tract infections
  10. early removal of what medical instrument can help reduce risk to infection
    catheters
  11. what are the four microorganisms the produce diseases
    • bacteria
    • fungi
    • viruses
    • parasites & Prions
  12. what is a pathogen
    is an organism the can cause a disease
  13. what is a colorless, minute one celled organism that contains bothe DNA and RNA
    bacteria
  14. what is microorganism needs oxygen to survive (aerobic)
    bacteria
  15. what are some diseases caused by bacteria
    • TB
    • Streptococcal Infections of the throat
    • Staphylococcal Infections
    • Salmonella Poisoning
    • Lyme Disease
    • Gonorrhea
    • Syphilis
    • Tetanus
  16. what are examples of fungi
    mold and yeast
  17. how does fungi reproduce
    by budding (yeasts) or spores (molds) formation
  18. what is a complex one celled microorganism that moves by flagella and cilia
    parasites
  19. what are some diseases associated with parasites
    • GI & GU tracts
    • malaria
    • toxoplasmosis
    • giardiasis
  20. what are helminths microorgansims and where do they live
    • parasitic worms
    • in the intestines
  21. what is the smallest microorganism
    viruses
  22. what microorganism has either DNA or RNA but never both
    viruses
  23. how must a virus survive
    must invade a host cell to live and reproduce
  24. list some common viral diseases
    • herpes
    • influenza
    • common cold
    • mumps
    • measles
    • hepatits
    • aids
  25. what microorganism exists in all mammals brain cells and can be malformed due to disease or genetic predisposition
    prions
  26. what microorganism causes mad cow disease
    prions
  27. what are the transmission of diseases
    • an infectous agent
    • reservoir of infection
    • exit portal from the reservoir
    • means of transmission
    • entrance portal to new host
  28. what has an ability to cause disease that are part of the elements needed to transmit infection
    • pathogenicity
    • virulence
    • invasiveness
    • apecificity
  29. what is a reservoir
    list examples
    • where pathogens can live and multiple
    • human being
    • animal
    • plant
    • food
    • water
    • soil
  30. what is an exit portal
    list examples
    • microbes leave the reservoir through one or more exit areas or portals
    • human beings (nose mouth open wound urinary tract intestines)
  31. what are the means of transmission of diseases
    • indirect contact - touching infected objects
    • direct contact - touching
    • dropelets - contact with infections secretions
    • vehicle- infected food water blood or drugs
    • airborne - evaporated roplets in the air
    • vector - infected animals
  32. list the example entrance portals to host
    • ingestion
    • inhalation
    • injection
    • across mucous membrane
    • across the placenta
  33. what people are vulnerable hosts to diseases
    • poorly nourished
    • chronically illed
    • immune suppressed patients
    • socioeconimc status/poor environment
    • poor hygien conditions/poor diets
  34. what disease is incurable and has a high mortality rate
    HIV which later on results to AIDS
  35. in what stage must a patient reach of the disease before it is classified as AIDS
    5th
  36. what is called when a persons body that does not adequately defend itself against disease
    so their body cannot do what ?
    • they are immunodepresses or immunocompromised
    • their body is unable to neutralize destroy or eliminate invading antigens from his or her body
  37. what is third line of defense against antigens which are foreign substance cause the body to produce ______?
    antibodies - protein substances that destroy antigens
  38. what are antibodies produced by
    b -  lymphocytes
  39. what are autoimmune diseases
    • they are antibodies that destroy healthy tissue
    • their antibodies react in a different way
  40. what are the four stages of infection process and briefly describe each
    • incubation stage - pathogen enters body and amy lie dormant and present no symptoms
    • prodromal stage - microbes produce and disease process begins, now are infected
    • full diseas stage -  symptoms diminish and disappear for awhile and becomes latent and may reoccur
    • convalescance stage
  41. what body process helps fight disease by increasing metabolic rate
    fever
  42. what type of virus is HIV
    retrovirus - converts RNA to DNA when it enter the host cell
  43. what do retroviruses have that increases their ability to destroy host cell (t4)
    reverse transcriptase
  44. HIV blood borne infection
    • Transmitted through sexual contact
    • Transfusion of contaminated blood Contaminated needles infected  
    • body fliuds
    • Mother/child
    • IV drug users
  45. viral hepatitis can turn into what disease in acute progression phase
    cirrhosis
  46. how many hepatitis RNA viruses are there
    5 A-E
  47. which hepatitis virus is transmitted only through fecal oral transmission
    hep A & E
  48. what is viral hepatitis
    is an inflammation of liver cells that is initial acute but in some cases render the disease to the chronic carries
  49. what part of the body does TB affect and what vaccine is needed for it
    • lungs or any part of the body
    • 2 step PPD shot
  50. what is medical asepsis
    To eliminate as best as possible all microorganisms with the use of soap, water, friction, and chemical disinfectants.
  51. what is surgical asepsis
    Microorganisms and their spores have been completely destroyed by means of heat or chemical process
  52. what does OSHA stand for
    occupation safety and health administration
  53. what are some procedures of infection control
    • medical and surgical asepsis
    • dress - minimal to non jewelry, nails, clothing lab coats
    • protective gowns
    • hair pinned back and away from pts
    • handwashing
  54. why is cleaning yur hands important between patients
    b/c many studies have shown that the bateria that cause hospital acquried infections are most frequently spread from one patient to another on the hands of hcws
  55. in healthcare facilities do the majority of healthcare workers wash their hands in between patients
    no
  56. why do healthcare workers do not wash their hands
    • heavy workloads (too busy)
    • skin irritation caused by frequent use of soap and water
    • hands not looking dirty
    • sinks are poorly located
    • handwashing takes too long
  57. patients with what disease carry resistant germs on their skin even when they dont have any wounds or broken skin
    • mRSA methicillin-resistantS. aureus
    • VRE vancomycin-resistant enterococci
  58. what is one advantage in using alcohol based hand rubs
    they are well locate and they require less time
  59. does frequent use of alcohol based hand rubs dry the skin
    no
  60. when should you wash your hands
    • your hands are visibly soiled (dirty)
    • hands are visibly contaminated with blood or body fluids before eating
    • after using the restroom
  61. when should you use alcohol based rubs
    • before having direct contact with patients after having direct contact with a patient’s skin
    • after having contact with body fluids, wounds or broken skin
    • after touching equipment or furniture near the patient
    • after removing gloves
  62. what do you do after you feel a build up of emoillents on your hands from alcohol based rubs
    wash hands with soap and water
  63. it is important to protect yourself from all substances that are _____?
    • wet :
    • breast milk
    • blood
    • sputum
    • nasal secretions
    • urine & feces
    • wound drainage
    • CSF
    • pleural, synovial fluid, peritoneal fluid
    • seminal or vaginal secretions
  64. what are some examples of PPE (personal protective equipment
    gowns gloves and goggles
  65. what is disinfection
    removal of microorganism (but not spores) from ojects or body surfaces by mechanical & chemical means
  66. what is the most important airborne (microbes spread on evaporated droplet's suspended in air & inhaled) precautions
    • priv room neg. air pressure ventilation and mask
    • tb particulate air filter
    • mask for pt via trasnportation
  67. what is colonization
    the presence of microbes on skin without the symptoms of disease
  68. what are expanded strict isolation precautions used for
    • diseases that are highly infectious
    • diseases that are different to control
  69. list the protocol in Infection Control in the Newborn and Intensive Care Nurseries
    • the RT must carefully clean the protable machine with disinfectant wipes
    • clean cloth covers the IR
    • hands washed for 3 minutes
    • gown
    • gonadal shielding
    • the RT must never enter the nursery if he or is suspected of having an infection

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