HSC322_CH1

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Author:
itzlinds
ID:
238718
Filename:
HSC322_CH1
Updated:
2013-10-06 19:55:58
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Kinesiology Skeletal System
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Kinesiology: The Skeletal System
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  1. Give a description of the cardinal frontal plane:
    divides the body into front and back portions
  2. give a description of the cardinal sagittal plane:
    divides the body into left and right portions
  3. give a description of the cardinal transverse plane:
    divides the body into upper and lower portions
  4. motion that occurs in the frontal plane occurs around what axis:
    anterior-posterior axis
  5. motion that occurs in the sagittal plane occurs around what axis:
    medial-lateral axis
  6. motion that occurs in the transverse plane occurs around what axis:
    vertical axis
  7. which of the following joints is biaxial (2 degrees of freedom)?

    gliding
    condyloid
    ball-and-socket
    hinge
    condyloid
  8. which of the following illustrates motion in the frontal plane?

    a discuss throw
    jumping jacks
    a bowling delivery
    an overhead throw
    jumping jacks
  9. adduction is defined as:

    movement of a segment in two planes
    movement of a segment away from the midline of the body
    reduction of a joint angle
    movement of a segment toward the midline of the body
    movement of a segment toward the midline of the body
  10. a reduction of a joint angle is the definition of:

    flexion
    adduction
    extension
    abduction
    flexion
  11. what do you call the movement when you are standing erect in the anatomical position and you:

    bend your elbow from a fully straight to a 90 0 bent position:
    elbow flexion
  12. what do you call the movement when you are standing erect in the anatomical position and you:

    A. maintain the 900 elbow bent position(elbow flexion), but you turn your palm down:

    B. turn your palm up:
    • A. radioulnar pronation or internal rotation
    • B. radioulnar supination
  13. what do you call the movement when you are standing erect in the anatomical position and you:

    A. maintain the 900 elbow bent position, keep your elbow touching your side, and turn your arm out so that your fingers are pointing directly away from your side:

    B. turn your arm back so that your fingers are pointing directly forward:
    • A. shoulder external rotation or lateral rotation
    • B. shoulder internal rotation
  14. what do you call the movement when you are standing erect in the anatomical position and you:

    straighten your elbow from a 900 bent positon:
    elbow extension
  15. what do you call the movement when you are standing erect in the anatomical position and you:

    A. move your arm laterally away from your side until it is parallel to the floor:

    B. move your arm back down to your side:
    • A. shoulder abduction
    • B. shoulder adduction
  16. Give the synonyms that you find used for movements in the following list:

    Ankle dorsiflexion:
    ankle plantarflexion:
    • dorsiflexion: toes point up
    • plantarflexion: toes point down
  17. Give the synonyms that you find used for movements in the following list:

    Spine flexion:
    Spine extension:
    spine lateral flexion:
    • flexion: forward bend
    • extension: backward bend (arch the back)
    • lateral flexion: side bending
  18. Give the synonyms that you find used for movements in the following list:

    wrist radial deviation:
    wrist ulnar deviation:
    • radial deviation: radial flexion or abduction
    • ulnar deviation: ulnar flexion or adduction
  19. Name the joint position of the segment described when your limb is places as follows:

    elbow bent to 900:
    flexed
  20. Name the joint position of the segment described when your limb is places as follows:

    elbow straight:
    extended
  21. Name the joint position of the segment described when your limb is places as follows:

    palm up (A. maintain the 900 elbow bent position(elbow flexion), but you turn your palm up)
    supinated
  22. Name the joint position of the segment described when your limb is places as follows:


    palm down
    (maintain the 900 elbow bent position(elbow flexion), but you turn your palm down)
    pronated
  23. what is the relationship between structure and fucnction?
    mobility and stablility
  24. Give an exmple of adaptability of human connective tissue

    baseball pitchers:
    Gymnasts:
    • baseball pitchers: may have the same range of motion, but shifted to 110-60 degrees vs. 90-70 degrees normal ROM
    • gymnasts: spine flexiblity
  25. Human joint design vary from simple to complex:

    what is the fxn of simple joint designs:
    what is the fxn of complex joint designs:
    most joints:
    • simple joint: typically stablility
    • complex joint:  typically mobility
    • most joints: combination of both

    what is the primary fnx of the joint?
  26. which structures make up the axial skeleton?
    skull, spine, sternum, ribs
  27. which structures make up the appendicular skeleton?
    arms, legs, ect.
  28. why do we have a skeleton?
    • structure, to support weight
    • **points of attachments for muscles;kinesiology fxn**
    • storage for minerals, calcium
    • blood formation process
    • protection of internal organs
  29. what are the benefits of long bones:
    • wider; bigger
    • greater arc
    • supports greater load
    • stability
  30. what are the benefits of short bones:
    • smaller area of contact
    • allows for manipulation
    • stability
    • distributes force
  31. what is a benefit of irregular bones:
    stability
  32. the midpoint of the proximal joint to the midpoint of the distal joint of the segments is called:
    mechanical axis
  33. Bones that have not completed growing have:
    epiphyseal plates
  34. once bone have no more growth there is ________________ of th eepiphyseal plate
  35. what causes osteoporosis:
    lack of calcium and minerals
  36. what can happen with osteoporosis:
    • bones become brittle and break
    • bone loss and space
  37. what other factors can enhance the onset of osteoporosis:
    menopause, caffine
  38. what are some ways to prevent osteoporsis:
    supplements, vitamin D, exercise
  39. what are the 2 basis of classifications of joint articulations:
    • functional: grouped based on function
    • structural: grouped based on design
  40. what are the benefits of joints (articulations):
    • structure and function interrealted
    • joint stablilty
    • ROM
  41. the classification of joints that have no seperation between the bone is called:
    synarthrodial
  42. the 2 examples of synarthrodial joints are:
    • suture:  joints found in the skull
    • gomphosis: joints found in the tooth
  43. what are the functions of synarthrodial joints:
    • stability
    • immoveable
    • protection
  44. list and describe the 3 types of amphiarthroidal joints:
    • ligamentous: 2 articulating bones connected by liagments
    • symphsis: fiber cartilagnous pad between bones, not much movement
    • cartilaginous: hylain carliage; some bending or twisting
  45. what is the fxn of ampiarthroidal joints:
    slightly moveable
  46. what is the fnx of diarthrodial:
    • largely moveable
    • greater ROM
  47. what are the characteristics of synovial, diarthrodial joints:
    • articular cavity
    • liagmentous capsule
    • synovial membrane
    • surfaces are smooth
    • surfaces are covered with cartilage
  48. what are the benefits of the fluid within the synovial membrae:
    • shock absorbtion
    • less friction
    • nutrients
  49. what type of cartilage are synovial membranes covered with?

    what is the benefit?
    • hylaine
    • less friction
  50. list the 6 types of diarthrodial joints:
    • irregular
    • hinge
    • piviot
    • condyloid
    • saddle
    • ball and socket
  51. degrees of freedom:
    description:
    example:

    irrgular diarthrodial joint
    • degrees of freedom: 0
    • description: flat, slightly curved
    • example: carpal

    arthrodial gliding plane
  52. degrees of freedom:
    axis:
    descrption:
    example:

    Hinge (ginglymus) joint
    • degrees of freedom: 1
    • axis: 1
    • descrption: concave, convex surfaces
    • example: ankle
  53. degrees of freedom:
    axis:
    descrption:
    example:

    condyloid
    • degrees of freedom: 2
    • axis: 2 (biaxial)
    • descrption:
    • example: wrist
  54. degrees of freedom:
    axis:
    descrption:
    example:

    ball and socket
    • degrees of freedom: 3
    • axis: mulitaxial
    • descrption:
    • example: shoulder, hips
  55. degrees of freedom:
    axis:
    descrption:
    example:

    saddle joint
    • degrees of freedom: 2
    • axis:
    • descrption: larger ROM
    • example: carpal metacarpal (CMC joint)
  56. what is the primary function of joints?
    what is the secondary function of joints?
    • primary: mobility, movement
    • secondary: stablitity
    • fnx differs with diffferent joints
    • stability: segments are kept closer together; resistance to displacement


    example: upper vs. lower extemity; what joint has greater mobility UE shoulder or LE hip,knee, ankle?

    hip has primary fxn of stability; 400 ROM for walking; has more potential but must be stable to support weight load; shoulder, knee, ankle have increased injuries so are less stable
  57. what provides joint stablility?
    • ligaments
    • joint capsule
    • muscle and tendon
    • fascia and skin
    • atomospheric pressure
    • shape of the articulation
    • dynamic vs. static (passive/inert) stability

    dynamic: knee or shoulder; needs muscle to be active; to keep joint congruent
  58. the amount of joint's angular displacement is called:
    range of motion

    typically joints have greater passive ROM than active
  59. the greatest dispalcement a joint can travel is called:
    max ROM: flexiblity; extensibility
  60. list the limiting factors to ROM:
    • shape of the joint
    • ligaments
    • muscle and tendons
    • body/build/type/composition (smatotypes) : endomorph, mesomorph, ectomorph
  61. rounder segments that may limit ROM are called:
    endomorph
  62. muscular (stocky) segments or composition that may limit ROM are called:
    mesomorph
  63. long, lean segments or composition that may limit ROM are called:
    ectomorph
  64. a barrier to further motion of PROM is called:
    end feel
  65. describe the characteristics of normal, typical end feel:
    • joint capsule
    • ligaments
    • passive muscle tendon
    • soft tissue approximation
    • contact of joint surface
  66. due to the approximination of soft tissue, this type of end feel is called:

    examples:
    • soft
    • example: elbow flexion, knee flextion
  67. list and describe the 3 types of firm end feels:
    • muscular stretch: opposing muscle is at its longest length; example: hip flexion- hamstring is at its greatest stretch
    • capsular stretch:  stretch of joint capsule (metacarples- flanges joint)
    • ligamentous stretch: ligmanent structure stops the ROM ( max supination of forearm)
  68. due to the approximination of bone on bone, this type of end feel is called:
    • hard
    • example: extension of elbow
  69. a soft, firm, or hard end feel occuring at a not normal point in the ROM - or-
    a normal ROM but with a different end feel is called:
    abnomral end feel
  70. what are the systems used to meausre ROM
    • goniometer
    • videotape
    • motion analysis system
    • reflective markers
    • active LED
  71. the point around the body where the mass is equally distributed is called:
    center of gravity

    • provides balance
    • torque and rotation is equal and opposite on each side
    • anterior of S2 is the COG on the human body
    • the point at which the 3 cardinal planes intersect
  72. the body fees the effect of vertical gravity called:
     line of gravity
  73. the 2 standard starting positions of the human body are called:
    • fundmental standing
    • standard anatomical
  74. the reference system for frames and axes are called:
    cardinal planes
  75. anterior/posterior
    front/back
  76. medial/lateral
    toward the middle/ away from midline
  77. inferior/superior
    below/above
  78. proximal/distal
    toward the joint/away from the joint
  79. ipsilateral/contralateral
    same side/opposite side
  80. list the 3 axes:
    • medial-lateral: bilateral;frontal;coronal
    • proximal-distal: vertical; superior/inferior
    • anterior-posterior: anteroposterior; sagittal
  81. Frontal Plane

    coronal plane
    movements:
    axis:
    • movements
    • abdcution: movement away from the midline
    • ADDuction: movement toward the midline
    • lateral flexion:  left and right

    axis: anterior-posterior; perpendicular to the joint motion
  82. Sagittal Plane

    vertical plane
    movements:
    axis:
    • movements
    • flexion: decrease of the joint angle; relationship b/w the anterior surface of the elbow/posterior surface of the knee
    • extension:
    • spine in sagittal: flexion and extension

    axis: medial-lateral

    *true for appendges and axial skeleton**
  83. a movement beyond normal extension is called:
    hyperextension: clincally hyper means beyond zero
  84. Transverse Plane

    Horizontal Plane
    movements:
    axis:
    • movements
    • rotations:
    • internal rotation: twisting segment toward the midline; the anterior surface of the segment
    • external rotation:  anterior surface of the segement twists away from the midline
    • spine: left and right rotation
    • forearm: pronation/supination (internal/external)
    • shoulder: horizontal aDDuction/ horizontal ABDuction

    axis: superior-inferior
  85. examlpes of right rotation of the spine in the transverse plane:

    because there are multiple segements..anterior portions of superior/inferior vertebrae.. the relation b/w the two
    • 1. superior twists right/ inferior neutral
    • 2. superor twists right/inferior twists left
    • 3. superior twists right/ inferior twist right
    • 4. superor twists right/pelvis twists left.. inferior goes with pelvis.. overall is superior is to the right so right rotation
  86. secondary planes place 3 planes through other points; center of the joint

    example: hand
    example: foot
    example: thumb
    • hand: sagittal plane is centered thru 3rd segment ( middle finger); transverse along the palm; frontal fingers and palm
    • foot: sagittal plane centered thru the 2nd segment (2nd toe)
    • thumb: saddle joint, 3 planes for the joint
    • another term for secondary planes are diagonal planes
  87. describe the difference between position vs. motion:
    • position
    • "ed" suffix: flexed, abducted,
    • joint angle

    • motion
    • "ion" or "ing" suffix: abduction
    • ROM
  88. what is the difference between open vs. closed chain
    • open chain: distal segment is free to move
    • closed chain: distal segment is fixed
  89. when the moving segment follows surface of cone; or the tip of the segment traces a circular path it is called:
    • circumduction motion
    • 2 or more degress of freedom
    • use just 2 motions to complete full movement

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