Chapter 2 Quiz

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Chapter 2 Quiz
2013-10-04 12:05:03

Chapter 2 Quiz
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  1. A sociologist who falsifies the results of his experiment would be violating ____.
    ethical standards
  2. Let’s suppose you have read a study whose results support the idea that divorce increases the likelihood of suicide.  In this study, divorce is a(n) ____.
    independent variable
  3. The more junk food you eat, the more weight you gain. This is an example of a(n) ____.
    positive correlation
  4. The term “correlation” refers to a situation in which
    a change in one variable is associated with a change in the other.
  5. Most researchers are in agreement that
    subjectivity can be reduced by not eliminated.
  6. A sample is random when
    each member of the population has the same chance of being part of the sample.
  7. Reliability and validity are concepts that are critical to using appropriate ____ in research.
  8. Which of these is not considered a nonscientific source of knowledge?
  9. You’ve read a study with results that support the idea that marital infidelity increases the likelihood of divorce.  In this study, divorce is a(n) ____.
    dependent variable
  10. In a small set of data consisting of the numbers 9, 3, 11, 3, and 54, the median value would be ____.
  11. The conclusions of a study will not be questionable if the study may be conducted by other scientists and yield the same results. This is the principle of
  12. Experimental and control groups in a laboratory experiment are made as comparable as possible through the processes of ____.
    matching and randomizing
  13. Researchers should keep their own biases from influencing the results of their studies. This principle is called ____.
  14. Which of the following best describes the Hawthorne effect?
    The researchers’ unintended behavior affects the responses of the respondents.
  15. Which of the following is not an example of quantitative variable?
    marital status
  16. A study finds that drug use, excessive materialism, and peer pressure cause crime. This is an example of ____.
    multiple causation
  17. Lower church attendance and juvenile delinquency are strongly correlated. Their relationship is due to the fact that both variables are related to age. In this example, the relationship between church attendance and delinquency is a(n) ____.
    Selected Answer:b. spurious correlation
  18. Why is science considered a superior source of knowledge?
    it is based on the principles of objectivity and verifiability
  19. A feeling of immediately understanding about something because of an insight that is not based on rational thought is called ____.
  20. Causation is established when
  21. A more precise sample is achieved when the population is divided into categories and subjects are randomly drawn from each category. This is called a(n) ____.
    stratified random sample
  22. The concept of validity addresses whether
    the study is measuring what it is designed to measure.
  23. In his study of homosexual activities in men’s public restrooms (tearooms), Humphreys violated an ethical standard that forbids
    violating his participants’ privacy.
  24. John Howard Griffin’s book, Black Like Me, was based on what type of research?
    participant observation
  25. The research method that sociologists would most likely use when studying prostitution is ____.
    field research
  26. When poor families receive government assistance they are no more likely to report hunger than working class families. Researchers find no correlation between poverty and hunger among families receiving government aid. In this example, government assistance is a(n)
    intervening variable
  27. You notice that your grades tend to get worse when you watch more television. This is an example of a(n) ____.
    negative correlation
  28. Ethnomethodology is an example of ____.
    the subjective approach
  29. ____ refers to opinions that are widely held because they seem so obviously correct.
    Common sense
  30. The first step in the scientific method of research is ____.
    identifying the problem